Native American History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Indian Reservation Formation, Socioeconomics and Culture

LearnAabout the Injustices Against Native Americans
This article explores how history is still playing out in unjust ways across Native America. Issues of law and policies of the past are still alive.

Who Are Native Americans?
Who are the Native Americans? There isn't a simple answer and its the source of ongoing conflict in Native American communities, and Congress.

Slavery and Identity Among the Cherokee
Cherokee unions produced descendants who find themselves at the crossroads of identity between black and Indian, exemplified in the story of Shoe Boots.

The History Behind the Cobell Case
In Cobell v. Salazar, over a century of abusive federal Indian policy and practices has been addressed in what has been called the largest class action lawsuit against the US in history. It helps to rectify the problems created by Indian allotment under the Dawes Act of 1887. This article mainly discusses the history that led up to the lawsuit.

What Is the Doctrine of (Christian) Discovery?
One of the foundational principles of federal Indian law is the doctrine of discovery, first articulated in American courts in 1823. A concept which informs today's legal system, it is rooted in racist ideologies and religious dogma that continued threaten Native American land rights.

Richard Nixon's Native American Federal Policy
Conventional wisdom usually attests to the Democratic party being more friendly toward Native American policy, but the Nixon administration was more favorable to Indian policy than any other administration since the 1930's. Nixon is remembered with fondness in Indian country for his support of tribal self-determination.

American Settler Colonialism - Definition
American history is viewed through the lens of imperialism. Its relationship to Native American tribes can best be described as settler colonialism which is defined as a social structure, not an historical event. The article defines two types of colonialism.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

Historical Social/Political Issues
Explores Native American social and political issues past and present. What historical Native American events led to today? What characterizes the social and political histories of Native Americans with the United States?

Controversial Issues
Highlights controversial issues in Native American and broader American contexts about Native Americans such as racism, mascots, cultural appropriation and ongoing land issues. How did racism against Native Americans start and does it persist? What kinds of battles do Native American peoples still fight in terms of rights?

Native American Culture
Explores Native American cultural history including language, music and art, spirituality and religion, food, governance and tribal structures and how they relate to today's Native Americans. Who are Native Americans? How did Native Americans live in the past?

Native American Food Practices
Describes and explores the food practices of different tribes in different regions, and the differences between hunting and gathering cultures and farming cultures. What tribes were primarily hunter/gatherers, and what tribes were farmers?

Indian Education
Features all aspects of education in Native American life, including traditional forms of learning in Native communities and western modes of learning introduced by Europeans. Western education was also a tool of assimilation and used to strip Native Americans of their cultures. How was Indian education used to force assimilation? What events led up to this impositition?

Native American Tribal Governance
The wide variance of Native American tribal governance which is rooted in tribal worldviews is examined. It includes Native Americans deep influence on American government and democracy.

Native American Sovereignty and Self-determination
Sub-category explores the concept of Native American sovereignty and self-determination. What is Native American sovereignty and self-determination?

Native American Languages
Explores the hundreds of living, receding and extinct Native American languages. What is Native American language revitalization? What were the forces that led to Native American language extinction?

Native Hawaiians
Considers the history of Native Hawaiian people in their home islands from pre-colonial times to present day. Who are Native Hawaiians? How is Native Hawaiian history different from Native American history?

People and Leaders
Explores important leaders in Native American and Native Hawaiian history. What was their impact on their tribes and Native Americans in general? How did they contribute to the rich history of American Indian people?

Reservation Life
Discusses reservation life including the history of their formation, how they were formed, what tribes have reservations, how they are organized politically and socially, different kinds of reservations and laws affecting them. What is a Native American reservation? Which tribes have reservations?

Native American Spirituality and Religion
Describes and explores the pre and post-colonial tribal spiritual and religious traditions. What is the difference between Native American spirituality and religion? What is Native American spirituality?

Tribal Profiles
Features profiles on Native American tribes including well known and lesser known tribes and their regions. What are the different Native American tribes? What tribes are found in what regions?

Federal Indian Law
Sub-category explores historical United States Indian law and how it forms present realities for Native Americans. What is the legal history of Native Americans?

Federal Indian Policies
Subcategory describes the history of United States federal Indian policy and how it informs the present. Policies include Treaties, Removal, Assimilation, Termination, Reorganization and Self-Determination. What is Native American Removal, assimilation, termination and reorganization?

Native American Art, Music and Dance
Native American art, music and dance are explored for their historical and cultural significance and meaning. What kinds of art, music and dance did Native Americans create and for what reasons? How are they expressed today?

Native/Indigenous Concepts and Perspectives
History is often a matter of perspective. How a history is told depends on who is doing the telling and from what perspective. Native/indigenous studies scholars tell histories that are often very different than conventional non-Native narratives and are explored in this section.

Indian Healthcare
Examines traditional and western forms of Indian healthcare. What were Native American healing practices before colonization? What is the current system of Indian healthcare, and what are the predominant health problems in Indian country?

Chief Massasoit Biography & Historical Relevance
Massasoit is considered an American hero for aiding the Mayflower Pilgrims. The article considers the context of his friendship and offers a critical view of the conventional narrative.

Native American History: Profiles, Culture, and More
Get a better understanding of the rich history and current state of Native American peoples and culture with these resources for students and teachers.


The Untold History of American Indian Slavery
One of the most obscure topics in American history is the over 300 year history of the Native American slave trade. As scholars continue to assemble scattered though plentiful historical records, there emerges an incomplete picture of the puzzle of this little-known era of history.

Fact and Fiction about the Origins of Thanksgiving
Most Americans think that Thanksgiving has its roots in a simple tale of Pilgrims sitting down to a shared meal with Indians to thank them for their help in surviving their first year at Plymouth. However, the story is not nearly that simple and it obscures other facts, resulting in a largely fictionalized tale.

The Pomo Death Marches of Native American History
History of Pomo Indians of California and forced relocation in the 1800's. Similar to the Cherokee Trail of Tears and Navajo Long Walk.

Overview of Federal Indian Policy History
This article breaks down the history of federal Indian policy into eras going back to the formation of the United States. How has the relationship between tribal nations and the United States changed throughout the years? What has influenced federal Indian policy history?

The Alcatraz Island Occupation and the Civil Rights Movement
The occupation of Alcatraz Island by Native American students in 1969 was a defining moment for the Native Americans during the civil rights movement. It marked the beginning of a new era for Indian people. The article explores how the concept of civil rights differed for American Indians compared to other ethnic minority groups.

Native American Dance Regalia: The Art of Powwow
Native American powwow clothing is a distinct art form. It includes the history, beliefs, skills and dance styles involved in powwows.

Marlon Brando, Littlefeather and the Academy Awards
In 1973 Marlon Brando refused to accept an Academy Award in a speech given by Native American Sacheen Littlefeather.

Christopher Columbus: Setting the Record Straight
Stubborn patriotic narrative of Christopher Columbus fail to convey the full history of Columbus's voyages. This article exposes the real history of Columbus.

The Deplorable Legacy of the Dawes Act
Also known as the General Allotment Act, the law was one of the largest land grabs in American history, dispossessing Native Americans of their lands.

Native American & Native Hawaiian Dance Traditions
his article articulates the similarities and differences in the dance traditions and how they were affected by American colonization.

What is Native Science and Traditional Environmental Knowledge?
Science is not specific to Western culture. Native American people had their own methods of producing knowledge that can be thought of as science. This article uncovers modern scholarly work on Native American science practices and knowledge.

The Indian Child Welfare Act: What is It?
The breakdown of American Indian societies was due to profound disruptions as a result of colonization, and included decades of removal of children from their homes. With positive changes in policy in the 1970's Congress created the ICWA to prevent further loss. The article describes the background and facts that led up to the creation of the law in 1978.

Language Shift: the Legacy of Assimilation
The condition of Native American languages is considered in its historical context, beginning with the knowledge that most existing languages are endangered. The article identifies actions taken by the United States government which were designed to replace indigenous languages with English.

Indian Education and the Carlisle Experiment
This article explores the Carlisle Indian Industrial School and its role in the United States Indian education policy during the Dawes years of forced assimilation. It identifies two primary objectives and evaluates the effects those objectives would have on Native American communities. What were the ultimate goals of the Indian education policy under assimilation?

Sailing and Cultural Revival in Hawaii
The ancient art of sailing in Hawaii was all but lost by the early 1970's, but would be revived as part of a larger cultural renaissance sweeping the islands. The building of the Hokule'a would be one of the signals of a rejuvenated sense of cultural pride in Native Hawaiians, and reflect a worldwide indigenous movement.

Hawaiian Son Eddie Aikau
Native Hawaiian Eddie Aikau is remembered for his remarkable acts of bravery and selfless heroism. A renowned big wave surfer, and crewmember of the Hawaiian sailing vessel the Hokule'a, his memory is a living inspiration for all Hawaiians and non-Hawaiians.

Profile: Mary Kawena Pukui
By 1900 Hawaii's traditional culture and language was endangered due to outside influences. Mary Kawena Pukui is one of Hawaii's most celebrated historians, credited with preserving the language and customs of her people in her life's work. This article is a overview of her work.

A Retrospective of the Hawaiian Hula
Hawaii's indigenous dance form, hula, is explored in its historical eras. Hula has evolved in different directions since the coming of Europeans, almost disappearing for over a generation and re-emerging changed but intact. What are the historical forces which have changed the dance form, and how is today's hula a reflection of Hawaii's encounter with Europeans?

American Indian Influence on the Founding of the US
A very under-theorized aspect of American history is the profound impact Native Americans-especially the Iroquois Confederacy-had on the founding of the United States. Native American philosophy and political theory is woven throughout the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution, but also diverged in important ways.

Vine Deloria, Jr.
This profile features the life and accomplishments of preeminent Native American scholar and writer Vine Deloria, Jr. Who was Vine Deloria, Jr.? What is he known for?

Iroquois Tribes
General information about Iroquois tribes. Who were the Iroquois Indians, where were they from, where do they live now?

Tribal Profile--Navajo Nation
This article profiles the Navajo Nation based on history, culture, political organization and language.

Wilma Mankiller
Wilma Mankiller was one of the most important Native American leaders of the 20th century. An inspiration to Native and non-Native Americans and men and women alike, her legacy was her fearless leadership against all odds.

Tribal Profile: Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma
The Cherokee Nation is the largest of three federally recognized bands of Cherokee Indians and is the most populous of all Native American nations. This article focuses on the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma (it does not consider the United Keetoohwah Band or Eastern Band of Cherokee). It highlights region,citizenship,culture, political organization and history.

Tribal Profile: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation
The Colville Indian Reservation is located in the North Central region of Washington state. Originally a dozen individual tribes whose common denominator was life on the Columbia River and their dependence on salmon, the forces of colonialism have brought them together, organized as the Colville Confederated Tribes since 1872.

Profile: Chief Joseph
Biography explores the life and stories of Chief Joseph as it attempts to dispel common misconceptions. Includes early life, history of the Nez Perce, and resettlement at the Colville reservation.

Tribal Profile: Narragansetts
Article profiles culture, history and current realities of the Narragansett people.

Tribal Profile: Wampanoag
Article discusses the history of the Wampanoag, who had first contact with the Mayflower pilgrims. It names famous Wampanoags and discusses the current Wampanaog culture and peoples.