Psychology Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

Security and Safety Needs - Maslow's Needs Hierarchy
The security and safety needs make up the second level of Maslow's needs hierarchy. Learn more about why wee need to feel safe and secure.

Social Needs - Maslow's Needs Hierarchy
At the third level of Maslow's hierarchy lies the social needs. Learn more about the needs that motivate behavior at this level of the hierarchy.

Esteem Needs - Maslow's Needs Hierarchy
The fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy involves the esteem needs. Learn more about the needs that motivate behavior at this level of the hierarchy.

Self Actualization Needs - Maslow's Needs Hierarchy
The self-actualization needs are found at the very peak of Maslow's hierarchy. Learn how self-actualization needs motivate human behavior.

Anna Freud (Daughter of Sigmund) Biography (1895-1982)
Anna Freud was influenced by her father, but was an important theorist in her own right. Learn more about her life, career, and contributions.

Behavioral Psychology Study Guide
Behavioral psychology focuses on how behaviors are learned. Follow this 10-step guide to improve your understanding of behavioral psychology.

Before You Choose a Psychology Major
Are you majoring in psychology? It is one of the most popular majors, but there are a number of things to consider before you make this decision.

Freud's Conscious and Unconscious Mind
Do thoughts outside of awareness influence behavior? Learn about Freud's three levels of awareness: the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.

The Color Psychology of Orange
Color psychology is concerned with the effects of color on mood, emotion, and behavior. Find information on the color psychology of orange.

Alternative Graduate Programs for Psychology Majors
Earning an undergraduate degree is excellent preparation for a number of different graduate programs. Consider some of these alternative graduate programs for psychology majors before you choose.

Left Brain vs Right Brain Dominance
Are people really left-brained or right-brained? Learn more about the truth about left-brain and right-brain dominance.

Parenting Styles: What They Are and Why They Matter
Research suggests that parenting styles have an important influence on development. Learn how they impact self-esteem, academic success, and happiness.

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Developmet
Kohlberg's theory of moral development offered a framework for how children form moral reasoning through a series of six key stages.

Integrity vs Despair: Psychosocial Development
Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erikson's psychosocial theory, when older adults reflect on the choices in their lives.

Identity vs Confusion - Psychosocial Stage 5
Identity versus confusion is the fifth stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, when pre-teens and teens are figuring out who they are and who they want to be.

What Does Cognition Mean?
Cognition refers to all of the mental activities that are involved in learning, remembering, and using knowledge. Learn more about these processes.

What Is a Locus of Control?
Locus of control is the extent you feel in control of the events that influence your life. Do you make things happen, or are you at the mercy of chance?

Id, Ego, and Superego: Freud's 3 Parts of Personality
Freud's psychoanalytic theory outlines three elements of personality - the id, the ego and the superego - that work together to form personality.

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4 Sneaky Mental Biases That Affect Your Health Choices
While you want to make healthy life choices, sometimes there are sneaky mental biases that can trip you up and influence the decisions you make.

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What Is the Halo Effect and How Does It Effect You?
The halo effect can have a powerful influence on the impressions we form of others. Discover the impact this cognitive bias has on your decisions.

What Is Self-Esteem? - Definition and Theories
Self-esteem describes a person's overall sense of self-worth or personal value. Discover why this is so important in the role it plays in motivation.

What Is Self-Awareness and How Does It Develop?
Self-awareness is one of the first parts of self-concept to develop and plays a central role in who we are. Learn more about when and how it forms.

What Is Self-Concept and How Does It Form?
Self-concept refers to the image with have of ourselves. Learn more about how self-concept develops and how it impacts various areas of our lives.

What Is Reinforcement in Operant Conditioning?
Reinforcement is an important concept in operant conditioning, and an important part of the learning process. Learn how it is used and find examples.

Positive Reinforcement and Operant Conditioning
Positive reinforcement is often used in operant conditioning to increase the likelihood that behaviors will occur. Explore some of these examples.

Tips for Writing Psychology Papers
Learn more about different types of psychology papers and find tips for planning, writing, and editing your papers.

Problem-Solving Strategies and Obstacles
The problem-solving process involves a number of steps and psychological strategies, but obstacles can sometimes make it more difficult.

Tips for Overcoming Procrastination
Is procrastination causing you stress or making you miss deadlines? Here are a few tips from psychologists on how to overcome procrastination.

Time Management for Psychology Students
Time management can help students successfully juggle school, work, relationships and leisure. Learn more about time management for psychology students.

The Psychology of Procrastination
We all procrastinate at some point, but what exactly is behind this often destructive behavior? Learn more about the psychology of procrastination.

The Nervous and Endocrine Systems
The nervous system and endocrine system allow information to be communicated throughout the body. Discover how the nervous system works.

What Are 'Great Man' Theories of Leadership?
The great man theory of leadership is one of the earliest theories to explain and understand leadership. Discover the history of the great man theory.

What Is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)?
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, or DSM-5, is used to diagnose mental disorder. Learn more about the history of the DSM and how it is used.

The Hypothalamus
Understanding the anatomy of the brain is an important aspect of biopsychology. Learn more about the structure and function of the hypothalamus.

Limbic System: Anatomy of the Brain - Page 8
Understanding the anatomy of the brain is an important aspect of biopsychology. Learn more about the structure and function of the limbic system.

The Anatomy of the Brain
Understanding the anatomy of the brain is an important aspect of biopsychology. Learn more about the basic structure and function of different parts of the human brain.

The Four Lobes of the Brain (Function and Location)
Each of the brain's four lobes is associated with different functions. Learn more about the structure and function of each lobe of the brain.

How To Write a Title Page in APA Format
Almost all types of psychology writing require a title page. How should a title page look? Learn how to prepare a title page in APA format.

How to Write a Better Psychology Paper
Writing a paper can be a daunting process. While the task may seem monumental, you can simplify the process by following some very simple steps.

How To Write a Psychology Critique Paper
Psychology students are often asked to write a critique paper evaluating a book, theory, or journal article. Discover tips on how to write these critiques.

What Are the Signs of Someone Is Lying?
Research suggests many conventional ideas about detecting lies (such as fidgeting and shifty eyes) are ineffective. Discover what really works.

Trust Your Instincts
When it comes to determining if someone is lying, some times trusting your instincts is your best bet.

Can Body Language Indicate Lying?
People often look to body language when trying to spot a lie, yet research suggests this is actually one of the most ineffective indicators.

Ask Them to Tell Their Story in Reverse
Telling a lie can be mentally taxing. Increasing the cognitive load can make maintaining a lie even more difficult.

Psychology Jobs - Where to Find Them
Searching for your first psychology job can be an exciting but daunting experience. Learn where to look for psychology jobs to make the search easier.

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Psychology Experiments That Will Surprise You
Learn about some of the most interesting and surprising psychology experiments, which might challenge what you believe about the human mind and behavior.

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Prejudice: How It Forms and How to Prevent It
Prejudice involves having negative attitudes and stereotyped beliefs about members of a group. Learn why prejudice forms and how to overcome it.

How the Process of Homeostasis Works
Homeostasis allows the body to reach and maintain a state of equilibrium. Learn more about how this process works and the systems involved.

How Long Does It Take to Get a PhD In Psychology?
How long will it take to get a Ph.D. in Psychology? Learn more about typical requirements, as well as other degree options you might want to consider.

Freudian Slip (A Definition With Examples)
You've probably heard the term Freudian slip, but what exactly does it mean? Learn about the definition of a Freudian slip with some amusing examples.

What Is a Cross-Sectional Study?
Cross-sectional research is often used to study what is happening in a group at a particular time. Learn how and why this method is used in research.

Generativity Vs. Stagnation: Erikson's Seventh Stage
Generativity versus stagnation is the seventh stage of Erikson's psychosocial theory. Discover the important events at this stage of development.

Some of These Facts About Dreams Might Surprise You
Dreams can be fascinating, exciting, terrifying or just plain weird. Learn more about some of the fascinating dream facts researchers have discovered.

Brief History of IQ (Intelligence Quotient) Testing
Psychologist Alfred Binet was commissioned over 100 years ago to identify students who needed educational assistance, and the first IQ test was born.

What Is Empathy?
Empathy allows us to understand and share the feelings of others. Why do we feel empathy in some situations and not others? Learn more.

What Is a Correlation?
A correlation is a statistical measurement of the relationship, either positive or negative, between two variables.

Interpreting IQ Scores - What Is Considered a Low IQ?
IQ scores are a hot topic in psychology, and a controversial one. What IQ score is considered low and what exactly does it mean to have a low IQ?

What Is Biopsychology? (Brain and Behavior)
Discover more about biopsychology and what biopsychologists do. Find information on the brain, nervous system, and neurotransmitters.

What Is a Social Worker and What Do They Do?
Social work is a psychology-related field that offers both challenges and rewards. Learn about what it takes to become a social worker?

What Is a Sample? Definition, Types, Sampling Errors
In research, a sample is a subset of a population that is used to represent the entire group. Learn more about why sampling is used.

What Is a Health Psychologist?
Health psychologists focus on how biological, social, and psychological factors influence health and illness. More on training, salary, and outlook.

What Is Considered a Genius IQ Score?
What exactly is considered a genius IQ score? Learn more about how IQ test scores are assessed and what percentage of people are geniuses.

Trust vs Mistrust: A Stage of Psychosocial Development
Trust versus mistrust is the first stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Learn what happens in the trust versus mistrust stage.

Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment
The Stanford Prison Experiment is one of the most famous experiments in psychology's history. Learn more about the experiment and the results.

Five Signs You Have an Introverted Personality
Like spending time alone? Feel exhausted by large crowds? You just might be an introvert. Discover common characteristics of this personality type.

What Is the Trait Theory of Personality?
Trait theory suggests that personality is made up of a number of broad traits. Learn more about this theory and some of the key traits.

Causes of Test Anxiety and Academic Stress
While test anxiety can be very stressful for students who suffer from it, many people do not realize that is actually quite common.

What Can You Do With a Bachelor's Degree in Psychology?
So you've got a bachelor's degree in psychology, now what? Learn more about some of the different entry-level careers available to psychology majors.

How to Find Sources for Your Psychology Research Paper
Are you struggling to find sources for your psychology paper? Check out some quick tips to guide you through the research process.

Wernicke's Area: Definition, Location, and Function
Wernicke's area is a region of the brain important in language comprehension. Learn more about what happens when this area of the brain is damaged.

5 Ways to Spring Clean Your Brain
Want to refresh and recharge your mind? Check out our top five tips for

Perspectives in Modern Psychology
How do psychologists explain human behavior? They actually utilize many different perspectives when looking at questions and issues in psychology.

The Five Levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow suggested that people are motivated to achieve self-actualization, but only after other needs on the hierarchy are fulfilled first.

Online Master's in Psychology: Should You Enroll?
Is an online master's in psychology right for you? Such degrees seem more popular than ever, but here are some factors to consider before applying.

How Long Does It Take to Become a Psychologist?
How many years do you need to go to school to become a psychologist? Learn more about how long it might take you to earn your psychology degree.

What Is Observational Learning?
Observation is a powerful method of learning. Most of what children learn comes from watching others. Discover how observational learning works.​

Nature vs Nurture: Do Genes Or Environment Matter More?
The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in psychology. We explain the question of which is more important: inherited traits or learned behaviors?

Learned Helplessness - What It Is and Why It Happens
Learned helplessness happens when people or animals become conditioned to believed that a situation is unchangeable or inescapable.

Overview of Humanistic Psychology
Humanistic psychology formed as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and stressed the importance of personal choice and responsibility.

Neurons - Building Blocks of the Nervous System
Neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. What makes them so different from other cells in the body? What function do they serve?

What is Emotional Intelligence?
What exactly is emotional intelligence (EQ)? Discover why EQ might matter more than IQ when it comes to your health, happiness, and life success.

Key Differences Between Classical and Operant Conditioning
Can you tell the difference between classical and operant conditioning? Learn how these concepts differ in several important ways, and explore a few examples.

What is Gestalt Psychology?
Gestalt psychology was focused on looking at the mind and behavior as a whole. Learn more about this influential school of thought in psychology.

Attachment Theory: How Do Early Bonds Shape Behavior?
Attachment theory is centered on the emotional bonds between people and suggests that our earliest attachments can leave a lasting mark on our lives.

What Is a Schedule of Reinforcement?
Schedules of reinforcement influence how fast a behavior is acquired and the strength of the response. Which schedule is best for certain situations?

Cognitive Dissonance - Theory and Examples
Cognitive dissonance happens when our beliefs do not match up with our behaviors. Learn more about how people strive to reduce this dissonance.

Discovery and Functions of Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine is found in the CNS and PNS and is the most common neurotransmitter. Learn more about the discovery and functions of acetylcholine.

Commitment to change is critical.
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Expect a challenge.
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Don’t expect immediate results.
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Remember that you are in charge.
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A Few Things You Should Know Before You Start Psychotherapy
Are you ready to start psychotherapy and concerned about what to expect? Here are five things you should know about the psychotherapy process.

Your psychotherapist is not your friend.
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Attachment Styles and Characteristics
Attachment is an emotional bond that impacts behavior throughout life. Learn more about the different styles of attachment and the role they play.

8 of the Best-Known Theories of Child Development
What factors influence children's mental, emotional and social development? Learn about some of the best-known theories of child development.

How Do Smartphones Affect the Brain?
Smartphones are a ubiquitous part of life, but do you ever wonder how they might impact your brain? Learn more about some of the possible effects.

A Brief History of Psychology Through the Years
They say that psychology has a long past, but a short history. Learn more about how psychology began, its history, and where it is today.

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10 Ways Psychology Can Help You Live a Better Life
Psychology isn't just a theoretical subject; it can improve your everyday life! Learn some practical ways psychology can help you live better.

Attitudes: The Psychology of How Your Attitudes Shape Your Behavior
Attitudes have a powerful influence on behavior. Learn more about how attitudes form, how they change, and how they influence the way we behavior.

Disorganized Attachment - Characteristics in Psychology
Disorganized attachment is characterized by confused and inconsistent attachment behavior. Learn more about disorganized attachment styles. Page 7.

Ainsworth's "Strange Situation" Assessment
One of the best ways to determine attachment style is the

Attachment Through Life
While attachment styles in childhood are not identical to those in adulthood, there are consistent behavior patterns for each style of attachment. Find more information on attachment style in adulthood.

Secure Attachment - Psychology Characteristics
Secure attachment is generally considered the best, healthiest style of attachment. Learn more about secure attachment styles in childhood and adulthood. Page 4.

Ambivalent Attachment - Psychology Characteristics
Ambivalent is one of the less common attachment styles. Learn more about ambivalent attachment in both childhood and adulthood. Page 5.

Avoidant Attachment - Psychology Characteristics
Avoidant attachment styles are those in which a child shows no preference between a parent and a stranger. Learn more about avoidant attachment in childhood and adulthood. Page 6.

Master's in Counseling Degree Options and Career Paths
A master's in counseling is one graduate degree option that psychology students can consider. Learn about counseling degree options and career paths.

Cattell's 16 Personality Factors
Raymond Cattell identified 16 different personality factors. Learn more about these personality traits and how each one can be described.

Raymond Cattell Biography (1905-1998)
Learn about Raymond Cattell, a pioneering psychologist who is perhaps best known for his use of multivariate analysis and his 16-factor personality model.

Can People Learn to Be More Compassionate?
Can compassion be taught? According to one study, meditation can help cultivate compassion and help people learn to help and care for others.

Loneliness Is Contagious, Study Suggests
One study suggests that loneliness can spread in social networks like a virus. Learn more about how loneliness can be contagious.

A to Z List of Phobias From the Strange to the Common
Phobias are quite common and affect many people each year. Check out this handy list of some of the most common (and some of the strangest) phobias.

Genie - The Story of the Wild Child
Deprived of almost all human contact until the age of 13, Genie posed an interesting question: Could a child learn language after the critical period?

Leadership Theories
Why do certain people become great leaders? Leadership theories seek to answer this question and usually fit into one of eight basic types.

John Dewey Biography (1859-1952)
John Dewey was an American psychologist, philosopher, writer and educational theorist who hugely influenced philosophy and education.

10 Fascinating Facts About Personality
Personality makes us who we are, but how much do you really know about your own personality? Learn some fascinating facts researchers have discovered.

Cardinal Traits Are Rare
Cardinal traits are so singular that people become known for them. Research also suggests that these traits are very rare.

Your Pet May Reveal Information About Your Personality
Are you a cat person or a dog person? Your answer might reveal quite a bit about your personality.

Birth Order Can Influence Your Personality
Did you know that birth order can influence personality?

Your Personality Is Relatively Stable throughout Life
While personality can change, researchers believe that it is relatively stable throughout life.

Personality Traits Are Linked to Certain Illnesses
Personality traits have been linked to specific illnesses and even shorter lifespans.

Animals Have Distinctive Personalities
Researchers have found that animals do tend to exhibit characteristics behavioral patterns and personalities.

Current Research Suggests that there are Five Core Personality Traits
The big five theory suggests that there are five broad personality traits.

Personality Influences Personal Preferences
Your personality plays a role in the things you like, how you vote, and the choices you make each and every day.

People Can Accurately Judge Your Personality Based on Your Facebook Profile
Your social media profiles can actually be a pretty good indicator of your personality.

Numerous Factors Can Contribute to Personality Disorders
Personality disorders can be influenced by a variety of factors including both genetic and environmental variables.

Study Tips for Students of Psychology
Good study habits are essential if you want to succeed in your psychology classes. Learn more about what you should (and should not) do when studying.

Introduction to Psychology
Do you think you might want to learn more about psychology? Discover some of the basics in this quick introduction to psychology!

How to Use Psychology Flash Cards
Flash cards can be a great way to memorize and study psychology terms and concepts. Use our great tips for how to study using psychology flash cards.

Psychology Facts: Things You Need to Know
Psychology is all around you and part of who you are. Delve deeper with these basic facts that everyone should know about psychology.

Types of Psychology Degrees (With Summaries)
There are many types of undergraduate and graduate psychology degrees. Learn more about how long each one takes and jobs available with each degree.

Electives for Psychology Majors
What electives should you take if you're a psychology major? Get some tips on how to pick electives that fit your career goals in psychology.

What Is Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy?
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) was developed by psychologist Albert Ellis in the 1950s. Today, it remains a popular form of cognitive therapy.

What Is Memory and How Does It Work?
What exactly is memory? How are memories formed? The following overview offers a brief look at what memory is, how it wor​ks and how it is organized.

Who Is the Father of Psychology?
Learn more about the man who is considered the founder of modern psychology and others who made major contributions to specific sub-fields.

What Is Attentional Blink and Why Does It Happen?
Rapidly shifting your attention from one thing to another actually​ creates a split-second of functional blindness. Discover how this works.

How Many Personality Traits Are There?
Just how many personality traits are there? Experts have suggested different estimates ranging from more than 4,000 to just three.

How to Reference Multiple Authors in APA Format
How do you reference multiple authors in APA format? Learn how to format your references whether it's for no author, one author, or multiple authors.

What Is Long-Term Memory? How Does It Work?
Long-term memory refers to the lasting storage of information. Learn more about the duration, capacity, and types of long-term memory.

An Introduction to Psychology Research Methods
Psychology experiments can range from simple to complex. Learn more about types of research, experimental design, and relationships between variables.

Theory and Hypothesis: What's the Difference?
Learn more about the proposal and development of a theory and the definition and testing of a hypothesis.

Causal Relationships Between Variables
Learn more about the causal and correlational relationships between variables.

Effect of Time in Psychology Research
Learn more about the the function and effect of time on a research study.

Correlational Relationships Between Variables
Learn more about correlational relationships between variables.

What Is Memory Consolidation?
Memory consolidation involves transferring information from short-term memory into long-term memory. Learn more about how this process works.

Basal Ganglia - Brain Anatomy Structures and Functions
Understanding the anatomy of the brain is an important aspect of biopsychology. Learn more about the structure and function of the basal ganglia.

Structure and Function of the Brain Stem
The brain stem is a vital part of the brain that includes the spinal cord. Learn more about the structure and function of the brain stem.

What Is the Midbrain and What Does It Do?
The midbrain is the smallest region of the brain, but it plays a vital role in how the brain functions. Learn more about what the midbrain does and where it is located?

Anatomy of the Brain: The Cerebellum - Page 5
The cerebellum is associated with receiving auditory and visual information. Learn more about where this structure is located and the function it serves.

What Is the Thalamus? Where It Is and What It Does
The thalamus is an important structure in the brain associated with things like sensory information and movement. Learn more about what it looks like and where it is located.

The 7 Psychology Schools of Thought
Since psychology first emerged as a separate science, different schools of thought have dominated the field. Learn more about some of the major schools of thought in psychology.

Classical Conditioning: How It Works With Examples
Classical conditioning has become important in understanding human and animal behavior. Learn how it works and explore a few examples.

An Example of a Phrenology Head
Phrenology was once a popular pseudoscience that linked bumps on the head to a person's personality. Discover what a phrenology head looked like.

Carl Rogers Quotation
Another quote from Carl Rogers, part of a series of great psychology quotes.

B. F. Skinner Quote
A quote by B.F. Skinner, part of a collection of great psychology quotes.

Carl Rogers Quote
A quote by Carl Rogers, part of a collection of great psychology quotes.

Albert Ellis Quote
A quote by Albert Ellis, part of a collection of great psychology quotes.

William James Quote
A quote from psychologist and philosopher William James, part of a collection of great psychology quotes.

8 Great Psychology Quotes and Why They Are So Great
These quotes from some of psychology's greatest thinkers offer insight into ourselves. Let's explore what makes these psychology quotes so great.

6 Great Psychology Quotes and Why They Are So Great
These quotes from some of psychology's greatest thinkers offer insight into ourselves. Let's explore what makes these psychology quotes so great.

Myths About Psychology Majors
Do you ever feel like the general public doesn't really understand what psychology majors do? Here are just a few myths about psychology majors.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms and Treatments
Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive worry and anxiety. Common symptoms include muscle tension and trouble concentrating.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Characterized by eccentric perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors, learn more about the symptoms and treatments of this disorder.

Job Outlook for Psychology Graduates
What will the job outlook be like for psychologists over the next decade? Predictions are good but find out which areas will grow the fastest.

Fromm's Five Character Orientations
Erich Fromm's theory of personality described 5 basic character types, 4 of which are unproductive. Learn more about each of the 5 character orientations.

Are Narcissistic Leaders More Effective?
When you think of qualities that make a great leader, does narcissism come to mind? One study says it might be the key to effective leadership.

Albert Ellis Quotes about Therapy
Learn more about Albert Ellis by reading some selected quotations from his many writings and interviews.

An Interview With Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis
Albert Ellis was one of psychology's most eminent thinkers. His wife, Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis, shares some of her favorite memories of the late Dr. Ellis.

Biography of Psychologist Albert Ellis
Albert Ellis helped found cognitive behavioral therapy and known for his therapeutic approach known as REBT. Learn more about his life and legacy.

Structuralism and Functionalism: Early Schools of Thought
The two earliest schools of thought in psychology were structuralism and functionalism. Learn more about these two theoretical approaches to psychology.

5 Controversial Psychology Experiments
Learn more about five of the most shocking psychology experiments, from Milgram's obedience experiments to Seligman's learned helplessness.

What Do Dreams About Pregnancy Mean?
Does dreaming about pregnancy reveal hidden desires, wishes, or fears? Discover what some dream analysts think.

More About Dreams
Learn even more about dreams. Psychology.

What Do Dreams About Falling Mean?
Does dreaming about falling hold a hidden meaning? Here's what some dream analysts have to say about falling dreams.

What Do Dreams About Being Naked in Public Mean?
Dreamed you were naked in public? What could it mean? Here's what some dream analysts think.

What Do Dreams About Dying Mean?
Does dreaming about dying hold symbolic meaning? Here's what some dream interpreters believe about such dreams.

What Do Dreams About Flying Mean?
Dreams about flying are common, but what do they mean? Here's what a few dream analysts have to say.

9 Common Dreams and What They Supposedly Mean
Do your dreams really hold a hidden meaning? Here are nine common dreams and what the dream analysts believe they really mean.

What Do Dreams About Being Chased Mean?
Does dreaming about being chased hold a hidden meaning? Here's what some dream interpreters have to say.

What Do Dreams About Taking a Test Mean?
Dreamed about taking a test? What could it mean? Here's what some dream interpreters believe.

What Do Dreams About Infidelity Mean?
Does dreaming about infidelity hold a hidden meaning? Discover what dream interpreters believe such dreams really mean.

What Do Dreams About Losing Teeth Mean?
Does dreaming about losing your teeth hold a hidden meaning? Here's what some dream interpreters think about such dreams.

What Is Narcissistic Personality Disorder?
Exaggerated sense of self-importance? Constant need for attention? Exploits others for personal gain? It could be narcissistic personality disorder.

What Is a Self-Schema?
A self-schema refers to the impressions that you have of yourself. Learn more about how these self-schemas form and how they influence behavior.

Harlow’s Rhesus Monkey Experiments
Harlow's monkey experiments were shockingly cruel.

Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Experiments
Pavlov's study with dogs is a classic psychology experiment.

The Asch Conformity Experiments
Asch's conformity experiments are also considered classics in psychology.

Milgram’s Obedience Experiments
Milgram's obedience experiments are among the best known experiments in psychology.

The Stanford Prison Experiment
Zimbardo's prison study is another classic experiment in psychology.

Classic Psychology Experiments
Learn more about some of the classic studies in psychology, including experiments performed by Pavlov, Harlow, and Skinner.

Problems That Occur During Prenatal Development
Prenatal development sometimes deviates from the normal course. Learn more about problems with prenatal development and common causes and effects.

Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development
Environmental factors can have a major influence prenatal development. Learn about some of the external forces that can affect a developing fetus.

What Is a Survey and When Should You Use One?
A survey is a type of data collection tool used to gather information about individuals. Learn more about how surveys are used in psychology research.

What Is the Status Quo Bias and How Does it Affect You?
The status quo bias leads us to make choices that maintain things as they are, but we also miss potential benefits that outweigh the risk of change.

Is Multitasking Bad for Your Brain?
Do you think multitasking makes you more productive? Then think again. Discover why multitasking can impair efficiency and even hurt brain health..

Histrionic Personality Disorder - Description, Treatment
Histrionic personality disorders create a maladaptive pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that can cause serious detriments to life areas.

What Is Creativity? The Psychology of Creativity
Creativity involves creating new things and solving problems in novel ways. Learn the different types of creativity and what it means to be creative.

What Is Choice Blindness In Psychology?
Choice blindness suggests that even when you don't get what you want, you probably don't even notice. Learn more about how your brain fools you.

Forgetting: The Psychology of How and Why Memory Fails
Forgetting occurs for many reasons and factors like time, interference, and context can influence memory. Learn more about why we sometimes forget.

What Is Aggression? What Factors Lead to Aggression?
Aggression involves numerous types of actions that can hurt or harm oneself or other people. Learn about the different types of aggression.

Social Psychology Research Methods
Social psychologists use a variety of research methods to study social behavior, including surveys, observations, case studies, experiments, and more.

An Introduction to Child Development
Child development can offer insights into how children grow, think, learn, and interact. Explore this intro to child development to learn more.

Psychologist's Theories of Personality Development
Personality development has drawn the interest of some of psychology's most prominent thinkers. Learn more about some of these major theories.

Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development: Four Stages
Psychologist Jean Piaget suggested that children go through four key stages of cognitive development. Learn more about his influential theory.

What Is the Hippocampus and Its Role?
The hippocampus is a part of the brain that is involved in emotions, learning and memory formation. Learn more about his important part of the brain.

Agoraphobia - Symptoms and Treatments
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder marked by fear and avoidance of public places. Find out more about symptoms and treatments for this agoraphobia.

What Is the Placebo Effect in Psychology?
You might often hear about placebo effects, but do you know what these responses are and what causes them? Discover what researchers have learned.

Fight or Flight Response: How Does It Work?
The fight-or-flight response is a physiological reaction that either prepares our bodies to stay and fight or to flee. Learn how this response works.

Physical Development: Understanding How Kids Grow
Physical development refers to physical growth and changes in motor skills. Learn what adults can do to foster healthy physical growth in childhood.

Dream Interpretation: What Do Dreams Really Mean?
Do dreams really reveal your hidden fears and desires, or are they just reflections of daily life? Here's what some of the top experts have to say.

Learning Theories in Psychology: An Overview
The learning theories of development focus on the environmental influences on behavior such as reinforcement, punishment, and modeling.

Who Was Erich Fromm? Social Psychologist and Philosopher
Erich Fromm was one of the eminent psychoanalysts of the 20th century, known for challenging the theories of Sigmund Freud.

Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory
Bandura's social learning theory suggests that people can learn though observation, including direct instruction, modeling, and imitation.

The Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development
The formal operational stage of cognitive development lasts from age 12 to adulthood. Learn about the characteristics of the formal operational stage.

What Are Common Introversion Traits?
Introversion is one of the major personality traits identified by many different personality theories. Learn more about characteristics of introversion.

Leon Festinger Biography (1919-1989)
Leon Festinger was a social psychologist perhaps best known for his theory of cognitive dissonance. Learn more about his life, work, and theories.

What Is a Perceptual Set in Psychology?
Perceptual sets influence how we perceive and interact with the world around us. Learn how your experiences, motives, and expectations affect perception.

5 Surprising Ways That Memory Works
Did you know that moving your eyes can improve your memory, while taking a picture might make it worse? Discover more surprising facts about how memory works.

10 Quick Facts About the Brain
Here are ten fascinating facts about one of the most interesting things in existence - your brain! Discover a few interesting facts and figures.

Theories of Sleep: Reasons Why We Sleep
While the importance of sleep is well documented, scientists are not entirely certain why we sleep. Explore some of the different sleep theories.

How to Study for a Psychology Test
Are you ready for your psychology tests? These simple study strategies will help ensure that you'll be ready for your next big psychology exam.

How to Read (And Understand) Psychology Journal Articles
Reading a psychology journal article can be daunting, but following a few simple strategies can make it easier. Check out these tips for success.

What Is a Frequency Distribution?
A frequency distribution is often used in psychology research to organize and present data. Explore a few examples of frequency distributions.

What Are the Major Perspectives in Social Psychology?
There are a number of different perspectives in social psychology and each has a different approach to explaining social behavior.

Psychosexual Development Summary Chart
A simple chart outlining some of the basics of Freud's psychosexual stages of development. Learn the basics of this theory.

How Sleep Cleans Up the Brain
Recent research suggests that the brain cleans itself of harmful toxins during sleep. Learn more about how sleep plays a role in cleaning the brain.

The GRE Psychology Subject Test: What You Should Know
The GRE psychology test is often required for admission to psychology graduate programs. Learn more about what the test covers and how to prepare.

Five Benefits of Being a Psychologist
What are some of the major benefits of being a psychologist? Learn more about some of the great reasons you might want to choose this career.

What Is the Law of Effect in Psychology?
According to the law of effect, responses followed by satisfaction are more likely to reoccur in the future. Learn more about how this law works.

APA Format: Rules for Citations and References
If you are a psychology major, learning APA format is non-negotiable. Learn the general rules and guidelines for this writing and formatting style.

What Is the Norm of Reciprocity?
The norm of reciprocity compels us to return favors after someone has done something for us. Learn how marketers use this psychological principle.

What Is the Overjustification Effect?
The overjustification effect is when offering a reward ends up reducing the intrinsic motivation to perform an action. Discover why this happens.

Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development describes 8 stages that play a role in the development of personality and psychological skills.

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The Asch Experiment: Understanding Conformity in Groups
During the 1950s, psychologist Solomon Asch conducted a series of experiments designed to demonstrate the power of conformity in groups.

INFJ - Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling, Judging
INFJ's are among the rarest personalities (just 3 percent of all people). Learn more about the characteristics of the INFJ personality type.

Carl Jung Biography (1875-1961)
Carl Jung is known for his theory of archetypes, and his studies of the human psyche. Learn more about his contributions to psychology.

Industrial-Organizational (I-O) Psychology Careers
Industrial-organizational psychologists investigate workplace issues such as employee selection, organizational development, and productivity.

Things To Consider Before You Buy a Psychology Textbook
Do you really need to purchase that expensive psychology textbook? Learn more about what you should consider before you buy, rent, or borrow.

Can Lack of Sleep Really Damage Your Brain?
Sleep deprivation is bad for your health, but research suggests that it might actually cause lasting damage to your brain.

Stages of Prenatal Development
The stages of prenatal development represent a tremendous amount of change from conception to birth. Learn more about the science behind each stage.

Important Milestones in Physical Development
Early childhood is a time of astonishing physical growth. Learn more about some of the major physical developmental milestones.

Horney's Theory of Neurotic Needs
Theorist Karen Horney developed a list of neurotic needs that result from trying to cope with anxiety. Learn more about her theory of neurotic needs.

10 Tips to Improve Your Nonverbal Communication
So much of communication is nonverbal, but do you know how to read these signals? Improve your skills with these ten nonverbal communication tips.

James McKeen Cattell Biography
James McKeen Cattell played an essential role in establishing psychology as a legitimate science. Learn more about his life and contributions.

ISTP - Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Perceiving
ISTP personality types are highly logical, independent, and practical. Discover more about the common traits ISTPs share.

ISFP - Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, Perceiving
People with ISFP personalities are often described as kind, caring and quiet. Learn more about the major characteristics of the ISFP personality type.

ISFJ - Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, Judging
ISFJs are quiet and enjoy order and harmony in all areas of their lives. Learn more about the characteristics of this personality type.

How to Write an APA Format Bibliography
An APA format bibliography an alphabetized listing of all of the sources that you might use to write a psychology paper. Learn how to write a bibliography.

The 4 Major Jungian Archetypes
Carl Jung described archetypes as models of people, behaviors or personalities. Learn more about the four major archetypes that Jung identified.

Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory
Sociocultural theory is a theory of development that stresses the important of socialization on cognitive development.

What Is Intrinsic Motivation?
Why do you do the things you do? If you are doing them for some internal reason, then psychologists would describe you as intrinsically motivated.

Oedipal Complex: One of Freud's Most Controversial Ideas
The Oedipus complex was used by Freud to describe a boy's feelings of desire for his mother and jealously and anger towards his father.

What Is a Theory and How Is It Used in Psychology?
A theory is a based upon a hypothesis and backed by evidence. Learn more about what a theory is and how it can be used in psychology.

How to Reference Journal Articles in APA Format
Learn to structure your articles references in APA format. This includes journal articles, magazine articles, and newspaper articles.

What Are the VARK Learning Styles?
The VARK model is one of the most frequently used methods to describe and categorize different learning styles. Learn about the VARK learning styles.

Sigmund Freud: His Remarkable Life, Theories, & Legacy
Sigmund Freud's work had a lasting influence on psychology. Journey through his amazing life, his most astonishing theories, and his remarkable legacy.

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10 Psychological Tricks That Will Boost Your Creativity
Think creativity is something you're born with? Think again. Here are 10 of the most unusual psychological tricks to boost your creativity.

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INTJ - Introverted, Intuitive, Thinking, Judging
People with INTJ personality types are reserved, logical and analytical. Learn more about the common characteristics of the INTJ personality.

Scholarships for Psychology Students
Scholarships can be a great way to pay for your psychology degree. Learn about some of the best places to look for psychology scholarships.

10 Women Who Changed Psychology
While the contributions of women are often neglected in the history of early psychology, many pioneering women help make psychology what it is today.

What Is Client-Centered Therapy?
Client-centered therapy, a non-directive technique developed by humanist Carl Rogers, emphasizes the importance of unconditional positive regard.

Positive Punishment: Definition and Examples
Positive punishment is an important part of B. F. Skinners theory of operant conditioning. Learn the definition and examples of positive punishment.

What Is Top-Down Processing?
Top-down processing involves moving from the general to the specific. Learn more about how top-down processing works, and how it influences perception.

Intimacy vs. Isolation in Psychosocial Development
Intimacy versus isolation is the sixth stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Learn about the events that occur during this stage.

Psychology Test-Taking Strategies and Tips
Good test-taking strategies can help improve your performance on psychology exams. Try some of these proven strategies on your next psychology exam.

An Introduction to the Perceptual Process and Perception
What exactly is perception? Learn more about perception and how we perceive objects in our environment through the perceptual process.

Action - The Perceptual Process
The final stage of the perceptual process involves action, or making some type of motor response to what has been perceived.

Perception and the Perceptual Process
The more about the steps in the perceptual process. Page 2.

The Environmental Stimulus - Perceptual Process
The first stage of the perceptual process involves the environmental stimulus. Browse our slideshow for more perceptual stimuli.

The Attended Stimulus - Perceptual Process
The next phase of the perceptual process involves the attended stimulus.

Image on the Retina - Perceptual Process
The next stage of the perceptual process involves the image being projected on the retina.

Transduction - Description
The third phase of the perceptual process involves transduction, during which the image on the retina is transformed into electrical signals. Page 6.

Neural Processing - The Perceptual Process
The next stage of the perceptual process involves neural processing, in which the sensory information is process by the neural system.

Recognition - The Perceptual Process
During the recognition stage of the perceptual process, the brain interprets the information gained from the sensory systems.

What Are the Different Parts of a Neuron?
Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system. Learn about the structure of a neuron and how neural signals are transmitted.

How Dendrites Work, Their Structure, and Function
Dendrites play an important role in the overall function of a neuron. Learn the parts of the dendrite and the function that each part serves.

What Is an Axon Hillock?
The axon hillock is essential to the firing of a neuron. Learn more about how this structure works and where it is located.

What Is an Axon and What Does It Do?
Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system. Learn about the location, structure, and function of the axon in neural transmission.

What Are Terminal Buttons?
Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system. Learn about the location, structure, and function of the terminal buttons in neural transmission.

James Lange Theory of Emotion
The James-Lange theory of emotion proposes that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events. Learn more about how this theory works.

What Is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory?
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the clinical assessment instrument most widely used by mental health professionals.

What Is Assimilation? Definition With Examples
Assimilation refers part of Jean Piaget's adaptation process in which people take in new information and incorporate it into our existing ideas.

What Is an Action Potential and How do Neurons Fire?
An action potential allows a nerve cell to transmit an electrical signal down the axon toward other cells. Learn more about how action potentials work.

What Is a Confirmation Bias? Examples and Observations
Confirmation biases can prevent us from considering important information when ma​king decisions. Learn more about how the confirmation bias works.

What Is Diffusion of Responsibility?
Diffusion of responsibility is a psychological phenomenon in which people are less likely to take action in the presence of a large group of people.

What Is the Average IQ?
Ever wonder if your IQ is average or even above average? Learn more about the average IQ on tests of intelligence and what these scores mean.

Self Efficacy: Why Believing in Yourself Matters
Self-efficacy plays a critical role in how we think, feel, and behave. What is it and why is it so important? What impact does it have on our lives?

Negative Reinforcement - Operant Conditioning
Negative reinforcement is used to strengthen behaviors. Learn about what negative reinforcement is, how it works and how it differs from punishment.

Autocratic Leadership: Characteristics, Pros, Cons
Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, involves high control and little group input. Learn about the pros and cons of this style.

What is a Schema in Psychology?
In psychology, a schema is a cognitive framework that helps organize and interpret information in the world around us. Learn more about how schemas work.

What Is a Dependent Variable? Definition & Examples
How can you tell which is the dependent variable in an experiment? Learn what a dependent variable is, how they work, and how identify them.

What Are the Four Major Goals of Psychology?
Psychology has four primary goals to help us better understand human and animal behavior. Discover what these goals are and why they are important.

The Little Albert Experiment (A Closer Look)
The Little Albert experiment was a famous psychology experiment conducted by behaviorist John B. Watson. Discover what happened to the boy in the study.

The Four Stages of Sleep (NREM and REM Sleep Cycles)
The brain displays a variety of activity patterns at different stages of sleep. What's going on in your brain while you slumber?

What Are the Big Five Personality Traits?
How many personality traits are there? Many contemporary experts suggest that there are just five broad traits that make up your overall personality.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that usually becomes apparent during early childhood and is characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattentiveness. Learn more about the history and prevalence of ADHD.

10 Most Influential Psychologists
Explore the top 10 most influential thinkers in the history of psychology ranked in the July 2002 issue of the Review of General Psychology.

Implicit and Explicit Long-Term Memory
Implicit and explicit memory represent different ways of remembering information. Learn more about these two types of long-term memory.

Differences Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can both impact behavior in different ways. Learn the differences between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation.

What Are Extrinsic Motivation and Rewards?
Extrinsic motivation can have a powerful influence on behavior, but it can sometimes actually reduce intrinsic motivation. Learn more with this article.

What Are Emotions and the Types of Emotional Responses?
Emotions exert a powerful influence over our lives, but what exactly are they? Learn more about some of the key characteristics of emotions.

Fluid Intelligence vs. Crystallized Intelligence
Fluid intelligence tends to peak early in life while crystallized intelligence grows through adulthood and into old age. Discover more key differences.

Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
The Gestalt laws of perceptual organization describe how we see and experience different perceptual phenomena in the world around us. See some examples.

Law of Proximity - Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Learn more about the law of proximity - one of the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.

Law of Similarity - Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Learn more about the law of similarity - one of the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.

Law of Pragnanz - Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Learn more about the law of Pragnanz - one of the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.

Law of Continuity - Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Learn more about the law of continuity - one of the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.

Law of Closure - Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization
Learn more about the law of closure - one of the Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.

Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development
The concrete operational stage of cognitive development occurs between the ages of 7 and 11. Learn about this stage's characteristics and milestones.

What Is Drive Reduction Theory? Definition and Examples
Clark Hull's drive-reduction theory suggested that human motivation was rooted in biological needs that lead to drives that then motivate behavior.

Forensic Psychologist: A Career Profile
Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to criminal investigation and the law. Learn about training, typical salaries, and job duties.

How to Become a Therapist: Educational and Career Guide
Have you ever dreamed of becoming a therapist? Learn more about the steps you should take in order to achieve your goal.

John B. Watson - Pioneering Psychologist Biography
John B. Watson is often referred to as the

What Is a Heuristic and How Does It Work?
Heuristics allow people to solve problems and make judgments quickly and efficiently, but they are also prone to errors. Discover how heuristics work.

What Is Democratic Leadership?
The democratic leadership style involves having members of the group take a more participative role in the decision-making process.

Employment of Psychologists
Psychologists work in a wide range of settings including hospitals, government offices, schools, and private practices. Learn who employs psychologists.

What Is Punishment?
Does punishment really work? Discover the types of punishment, how effective it is and how it differs from negative reinforcement.

American Psychologist Abraham Maslow Biography
Abraham Maslow was one of the founders of humanistic psychology and the famous hierarchy of needs. Learn more about his life, work and theories.

Psychologist vs Psychiatrist: What Is the Difference?
What's the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist? Here is a quick guide to the differences in education, training, and practice.

Careers in Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychologists study mental processes such as attention, memory and problem solving. Learn more about some careers in cognitive psychology.

Psychoanalysis: How Did It Influence Psychology?
Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud and suggests an approach to therapy that emphasizes childhood experiences and the unconscious mind.

Principles of Classical Conditioning
There are a number of phenomena that play a role in classical conditioning including acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery.

What Is an Unconditioned Stimulus?
The unconditioned stimulus triggers a response automatically. Learn more about how it works and its role in the conditioning process.

What Is the Independent Variable?
In a psychology experiment, manipulating the independent variable allows researchers to look at cause-and-effect relationships. Explore some examples.

What Is Motivation? The Psychology of What Motivates Us
Motivation is the force that guides our behaviors, but why exactly are we motivated to do the things we do? Discover what psychologists have learned.

Hypothesis Definition, Checklist, and Examples
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Learn more about the elements of a good hypothesis.

Jean Piaget: Life and Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development contributed to our understanding of children's intellectual development. Learn about his life and theory.

What Is the Conscious Mind?
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the conscious mind includes everything that inside of awareness. Learn more about the role the conscious mind plays.

Reasons Why We Forget
Why do we forget information we have learned in the past? Researcher Elizabeth Loftus suggests that there are four basic reasons why we forget.

What Is Experiential Learning?
Experiential learning theory focuses on how people learn through experience via grasping and transforming new information. Learn how this process works.

When Did Sigmund Freud Die?
The final years of Sigmund Freud's life were a time of painful illness and upheaval. Learn more about the events leading up to Freud's death.

7 Great Ideas for Psychology Experiments
Are you looking for an idea for a psychology experiment? Finding the right idea can be difficult, but here are a few options to get you started.

Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Summary Chart
Learn more about Erikson's theory in this handy chart outlining some of the basics of the stages of psychosocial development.

15 Signs That You Are a Psychology Major
There are a few tell-tale signs that you might be majoring in psychology. Do you identify with any of these common characteristics?

Ten of the Most Common Phobias
Afraid of spiders, snakes, or heights? You're not alone. Phobias affect about 10-percent of adults. Learn more about 10 of the most common phobias.

The Famous Case of Phineas Gage's Astonishing Brain Injury
Phineas Gage suffered a terrible injury that made him one of the most famous cases of traumatic brain injury. Learn more about his incredible story.

6 Key Ideas Behind Theories of Motivation
Motivation is the force that guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Learn more about some of the major theories of motivation.

Topics for Psychology Papers: More Than 50 Great Ideas
Are you struggling to find a great topic for your psychology paper? Check out our collection of ideas to spark your creativity and inspire a topic for your paper.

Training for Psychologists - Degree Levels and Careers
What sort of training is required to become a psychologist? Learn more about some of the different degree options and training requirements.

Psychological Theories of Love
Why do we fall in of love? Psychologists have proposed a number of theories to explain and describe love. Learn about some of these major theories.

Albert Bandura Biography: His Life, Work and Theories
Albert Bandura is best known for his famous

A Few Top Theories On Why Do We Dream
Have you ever wondered why you dream? While we don't yet fully understand why we dream, some of the top experts have weighed in with a few theories.

What Are the Different Theories of Intelligence?
While there are numerous theories of intelligence, psychologists do not agree on a standard definition of 'intelligence.' Let's explore the major theories.