Psychology Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

What Are Neurotransmitters?
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that carry signals to other cells in the body. Learn how these messengers work and why they are so important.

What Is Introspection?
Wilhelm Wundt pioneered the use of an experimental technique he called introspection. Learn more about how this process work and how it was used...

ISTJ - Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judgment
The ISTJ personality is characterized by a sense of organization, structure, loyalty, and respect for rules. Learn more about this personality type.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT): How Does It Work?
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a type of short-term treatment that can be highly effective for many disorders. Learn more about how CBT works.

APA Format: 12 Basic Rules You Must Follow
APA format is the standard style for psychology papers. Learn more about documenting your sources, preparing a reference section, and proper in-text citations.

Brain Plasticity: How Experience Changes the Brain
Brain plasticity, or neuroplasticity, refers to the brain's ability to change as a result of experience. Learn more about how the brain can change.

What Is Group Therapy? How Does It Work?
Group therapy involves one or more therapists treating a small group of people at the same time. Discover some of the benefits of group therapy.

How to Become a Child Psychologist
Child psychologists work with children on a wide range of issues including mental health, academics, social support, learning disorders and coping skills.

What Is Groupthink?
People often strive for consensus in groups, a phenomenon known as groupthink. Learn more about groupthink and how it impacts human behavior.

What Is the Hawthorne Effect?
The Hawthorne effect refers to a phenomenon in which participants alter their behavior as a result of being part of an experiment or study.

Dr. Ellis Interview About REBT
Dr. Debbie Joffe Ellis shares some special memories of her husband, the eminent Dr. Albert Ellis. Learn more about Ellis and REBT in this interview.

Loneliness - Causes, Effects and Treatments
Loneliness is a universal yet complex human emotion. Learn more about the causes, effects, and treatments for loneliness.

ESFJ - Extraverted, Sensing, Feeling, Judging
ESFJs tend to be outgoing, loyal and highly organizing. Learn more about the ESFJ personality type.

ENFJ - Extraverted, Intuitive, Feeling, Judging
The ENFJ personality type is one of the 16 identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Learn more about the characteristics of ENFJ personality.

What Is Sports Psychology? (History, Topics, Careers)
Sports psychology looks at how the mind influences athletic performance and exercise. Learn how it helps professional and amateur athletes.

Counseling Psychology: Careers, Training, and More
Counseling psychology, one of the largest specialty areas in psychology, helps people cope with issues associated with mental and emotional disorders.

How to Write An Abstract: 7 Steps to Follow
In scientific writing, an abstract is a concise summary of a paper. This quick guide will teach you how to write an abstract section in APA format.

A List of Psychological Disorders
This list of psychological disorders describes different categories of mental disorders and offers examples of each type of psychological disorder.

Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders
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Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders
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Neurocognitive Disorders - List of Psychological Disorders
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Personality Disorders - List of Psychological Disorders
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Further Information and Resources
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Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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Mood Disorders - List of Psychological Disorders
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Anxiety Disorders - List of Psychological Disorders
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Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders
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Dissociative Disorders - List of Psychological Disorders
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Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
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Feeding and Eating Disorders - List of Psychological Disorders
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Sleep - Wake Disorders - List of Psychological Disorders
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"The Interpretation of Dreams" by Sigmund Freud
The Interpretation of Dreams stands as one of the classic texts in the history of psychology and marked the beginnings of psychoanalytic psychology.

What Is the Bystander Effect?
Why would a person standby and fail to help another person in trouble? In social psychology, this is known as the bystander effect. Learn why it happens and explore some examples.

What Is Test Anxiety?
A little nervousness can actually be helpful and make you feel mentally alert. Test anxiety involves excess fear making it difficult to concentrate.

The Biography of Psychologist George Kelly
George Kelly was an important psychologists best known for his personal construct theory. Learn more about his life and contributions to psychology.

Types of Nonverbal Communication
Discover the different types of nonverbal communication and behavior, including gestures, facial expressions, appearance, and postures.

What Is Operant Conditioning and How Does It Work?
Operant conditioning is one of the fundamental concepts in behavioral psychology. Learn more about the effects of rewards and punishments on behavior.

PhD, PsyD and Other Therapy Degrees
Do you want to work in therapy? A PhD in psychology is always an option, but there are other alternatives that also allow you to work in mental health.

What Is Catharsis?
A catharsis is a powerful emotional release accompanied by cognitive insight and positive change. Learn about the role of catharsis in psychology.

Cognitive-Training Can Result in Long-Term Improvement
Does brain training really help preserve cognitive abilities as we age? According to the results of one study, such training can have long-term benefits. Learn more...

Elizabeth Loftus Biography
Elizabeth Loftus is an influential contemporary psychologist and one of the leading experts on human memory. Life, contributions and publications.

Delayed Gratification: Why Wait For What You Want?
Can you resist temptation? Research suggests that the ability to delay gratification might be critical to success and well-being. Learn more.

Characteristics and Qualities of Heroism
What qualities make a person more likely to become a hero? Researchers have found that heroes tend to share a number of key characteristics and qualities.

Can Psychologists Prescribe Medications?
Psychologists provide a range of mental health services, but is prescribing medications one of them? More on recent efforts to expand prescribing powers.

Birth - A New Stage of Development
Birth officially marks the start of development outside the womb. Learn more about birth and how newborn infants are assessed.

Development in the First Year
A child's first year is a period of remarkable development. Learn more about some of the major developmental events of the first year of life.

Developmental Psychology Research Topics
Looking for a good research topic for your developmental psychology class? Here are a few ideas that you might want to explore as options.

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5 Brain Exercises to Strengthen Your Mind
What can you do to keep your brain strong? Stay mentally sharp with some of these brain exercises that might help keep your brain healthier.

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10 Characteristics of Creative People
Creative individuals often possess a set of paradoxical traits that contribute to their ingenuity. Learn more about these creative characteristics.

Creative people are passionate, but objective about their work.
Creative people love what they do, but are will to take criticism.

Creative people are sensitive, but joyful.
Creativity often involves opening yourself up to pain and criticism. Yet the rewards of creativity can bring great joy.

Creative People Are Energetic
Creative people are high energy, but also enjoy quiet time to focus.

Creative people are smart, but also naive.
Creative people are intelligent, but able to look at the world with fresh eyes.

Creative people are playful, yet disciplined.
Creative people can be light-hearted, but they perservere in the face of challenges.

Creative people are realistic dreamers.
Creative people daydream, but are also realistic.

Creative people are extroverted AND introverted.
Creative people can be both outgoing and reserved.

Creative people are proud, yet modest.
Creative people are proud of their accomplishments, but also humble.

Creative people are not weighed down by rigid gender roles.
Creative people tend to reject rigid stereotypes that attempt to dictate how men and women should behave.

Creative people are conservative, yet rebellious.
Creative people understand tradition, but are willing to take risks.

10 Cognitive Biases That Distort Your Thinking
Cognitive biases can impair rational judgment and lead to poor decisions. Learn more about ten biases that sway your thinking.

The Most Extroverted and Introverted States
Discover which states rank as the most extroverted and introverted.

Does Where You Live Influence Your Personality Type?
Could where you live influence your personality? One survey suggests that people who live in certain areas rate higher on specific characteristics.

The Most Focused and Flexible States
Discover which states ranked as the most focused and flexible.

The Most Neurotic and Resilient States
Discover which states rank as the most neurotic and resilient.

The Most Agreeable and Competitive States
Discover which states rate as the most agreeable and the most competitive.

The Most Abstract and Concrete States
Discover which states rank as the most abstract and concrete.

More Resources That Might Help
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Focus on Difficult Information - Improve Your Memory
Focusing on the most difficult information can aid in the recall of study materials.

Vary Your Routine - Improve Your Memory
Stop studying the same way! Switch up your routine to help improve your memory.

Get Some Sleep - Improve Memory
Researchers have shown that sleep is critical to memory.

Avoid Cramming - Great Ways to Improve Memory
Can regular study session really help you remember more?

Get Organized - Great Ways to Improve Memory
Organizing your study material can greatly improve your memory.

Use Mnemonics - Great Ways to Improve Memory
Mnemonics are a great way to improve your memory.

Rehearse Information - Great Ways to Improve Memory
Rehearsal is an important part of committing information to memory.

Visualize - Great Ways to Improve Memory
Visualization is one way to improve memory and improve recall.

Use What You Know - Great Ways to Improve Memory
Relating new information to things your already know can help you remember more.

Teach Someone Else - Ways to Improve Memory
Trying to remember something? Try teaching it to another person!

11 Great Ways to Improve Your Memory
Do you ever wish you could improve your memory? Check out these research-proven strategies that can boost your memory and help you remember more.

Focus Attention - Great Ways to Improve Memory
Paying attention is one way to help sharpen your memory.

A Short-Term Memory Experiment
This simple memory experiment can be a fun and interesting way to learn about the duration and limitations of short-term memory. Try it for yourself.

Exercise Helps Grow New Brain Cells
Exercise might help you grow new brain cells.

When Is the Best Time to Exercise?
The timing of when you exercise might play a role in how much it impacts learning and memory.

What Type of Exercise Is Best?
Which kinds of exercise offer the greatest brain benefits?

Can Exercise Really Make You Smarter?
Exercise is good for your body, but it might even make you smarter. Discover how being fit boosts memory, improves learning, and promotes brain growth.

Being Fit Improves Memory and Learning
Aerobic exercise can make it easier to learn difficult material.

Ted Bundy
Serial killer Ted Bundy studied psychology at the University of Washington.

Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart earned a bachelor's in psychology.

Marcia Cross
Actress Marcia Cross earned a master's degree in psychology.

Guy Kawasaki
Guy Kawasaki earned a B.A. in Psychology as well.

Gloria Estefan
Singer Gloria Estefan also earned a bachelor's degree in psychology.

Wes Craven
Horror film director Wes Craven also earned a degree in psychology.

Natalie Portman
Acclaimed actress Natalie Portman earned a psychology degree from Harvard.

Famous People With Psychology Degrees
Ever wonder which celebs majored in psychology? Here are just a few famous (and infamous) people who studied psychology in college.

Monica Lewinsky
Monica Lewinsky moved to London to escape public scrutiny and to study psychology.

Hugh Hefner
Adult magazine publisher Hugh Hefner earned a bachelor's degree in psychology.

More About Majoring in Psychology
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Jerry Bruckheimer
Film producer Jerry Bruckheimer earned a bachelor's degree in psychology.

Decision-Making Strategies: 5 Ways to Make a Decision
Psychologists have identified a number of different strategies we use when making decisions. Factors such as time and complexity can influence which method we use.

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The Stanford Prison Experiment
Can regular people be led to do terrible things? Zimbardo's famous prison experiment looked at the powerful role the situation can play.

The Asch Conformity Experiments
In this famous experiment, Asch demonstrated the power of conformity. Would you go along with the group, even if you knew they were wrong?

The Most Famous Social Psychology Experiments Ever Performed
Social psychologists have performed many famous (and sometimes controversial) studies. Learn more about some of the most notorious experiments.

The Bobo Doll Experiment
Does watching violence on television really cause kids to behave violently? Bandura's famous experiment suggests that kids do indeed mimic violence.

The Milgram Experiments
Milgram's experiments were cruel and unethical, yet they revealed a shocking truth about how far people will go to obey authority.

What Is Art Therapy?
Art therapy integrates psychotherapeutic techniques with the creative process to improve mental health and well being. Learn how art therapy is used.

Which Psychology Graduate Program Is the Best?
In order to choose the right psychology graduate program, it is important to consider your needs and goals. Here are some tips for making this choice.

Courses Required by Psychology Graduate Programs
What psychology classes should you take to prepare for graduate school? Learn which courses are most often required by psychology graduate programs.

Before You Choose a Psychology Graduate School
Which psychology graduate program is right for you? Learn the important factors you should consider before you choose a psychology graduate school.

How to Reference a Book in in APA Format
APA format has specific rules for creating a book reference. Check out these tips for references different types of books in APA style.

Confidentiality in Online Therapy
Online therapy poses some special confidentiality concerns. Discover what you can do to keep your personal information secure.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Therapy
While online therapy therapy has a number of advantages, there are also many drawbacks. Learn more about the pros and cons of online therapy.

5 Common Questions About Love
Learn the answers to some of the top questions about love from our readers.

Avoidant Personality Disorder and Its Symptoms
Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by shyness, sensitivity to rejection and avoidance of social situations. Learn more about the symptoms and treatments for avoidant personality disorder.

Dependent Personality Disorder - Symptoms and Treatments
Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of dependent, submissive, and needy behavior. Learn more about the symptoms and treatments of dependent personality disorder.

Does Eating Breakfast Improve School Performance?
Does eating breakfast really boost school performance? Find out for yourself by trying out this psychology experiment

Experiment: Does Using Colored Paper Improve Learning?
Does the color of paper or text used affect how well a student learns or performs on an exam? Put this question to the test in this experiment.

Carl Rogers Quotes - Psychology and Life Quotes
Selected quotes from pioneering humanist psychologist Carl Rogers. Discover words of wisdom on topics including human nature and self-actualization.

What Is Hysteria? (An Overview and Introduction)
Hysteria was a Victorian-era medical condition characterized by symptoms including hallucinations, nervousness, and partial paralysis. Learn more.

Common Questions About Psychology School and Education
If you're planning on becoming a psychologist or entering a psychology related field, it is important to understand school and educational requirements.

The Search for Little Albert
Researchers thought they knew Little Albert's true identity, but new evidence suggests that a different boy may have been in Watson's famous experiment.

10 Cool Optical Illusions
Optical illusions can be fun, but they are also a great way to learn more about the brain and perception. Here are ten cool optical illusions to try.

42 Famous Psychologists You Should Know
Throughout psychology's relatively brief history, there have been many famous psychologists who have left their mark both on psychology and on the world at large. Learn about 42 famous psychologists.

Disadvantages of Being a Psychologist
Being a psychologist can be rewarding, but there are also downsides to consider. Discover the disadvantages and challenges that psychologists face.

What Is Ego Strength In Psychology?
Ego strength refers to a person's ability to manage the demands of the id, the superego and reality. Learn more about the characteristics of ego strength.

B. F. Skinner: Biography of the Behaviorist Thinker
B.F. Skinner's research on operant conditioning made him one of the leaders of behaviorism, and a magnet for controversy. Learn more about his life.

Becoming an Informed Consumer of Psychology
Are you good at interpreting popular news stories about psychology? Learn more about become a wise consumer of psychological research.

Clinical Psychology Careers: Training, Salary, Outlook
Clinical psychologists assess, diagnose, and treat mental disorders. Learn more about what clinical psychologists do and where they work.

Early Childhood Development: An Overview
Early childhood is a time of remarkable psychological, physical, and social development. Learn about how children grow and change in early childhood.

Seven APA Citation Tools
Looking for an APA citation tool to help you create a keep track of your citations and references? Here are a few of the great APA citation tools.

Psychology Research Terms You Should Know
Learn more about some of the important terms and concepts you should know when it comes to psychology research methods.

Where to Find Ideas for Psychology Experiments
Many courses require students to design and sometimes perform their own psychology experiments. Here are tips for where you can find ideas.

Fields of Psychology - Cognitive, Experimental and More
Psychology is a huge topic and a number of different fields of psychology have emerged to deal with specific topics within the study of the mind, brain and behavior.

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt - Psychosocial Development
Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Discover the important events of this stage.

Psychology Graduate School FAQ
Before you apply to a graduate program in psychology, find out the answer to some of the most common questions about psychology graduate school.

A Good Night's Sleep May Improve Your Memory
Did you know that getting a good night's sleep can actually help improve your memory? Learn more about the important connection between sleep and memory.

Most Short-Term Memories Are Quickly Forgotten
Short-term memory is remarkably short often storing information for only a brief period of time. Learn more about how long information can be stored in short-term memory.

You Can Learn to Improve Your Memory
Having a hard time remembering stuff? Fortunately, there are some steps you can take to improve your memory. Learn more about some strategies that may come in useful.

Experimental Psychologist (Jobs, Salary, Training)
Experimental psychologists study many aspects of both human and animal behavior. Learn about what they do, the training they need and how much they earn.

Experience and Development in Children
Discover more about how factors such as learning, parenting, culture, and peers influence how children grow and develop and why experience matters.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: The 16 Personality Types
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is one of the most widely used psychological assessments. Learn more about the 16 MBTI personality types.

ENFP: An Overview of the "Champion" Personality Type
People with an ENFP personality type are often described as charismatic, fun, and creative. Learn more about the common characteristics of this type.

Dream Interpretations, Characteristics, and Theories
Have you ever wondered why you dream or what your dreams mean? Learn more about some of the top theories, characteristics and interpretations of dreams.

The Benefits of Positive Thinking (For Body and Mind)
Positive thinking is good for your body, mind, and overall health. Learn more about some of the biggest benefits of positive thinking.

13 Major Branches of Psychology
There are a number of different branches of branches of psychology used to study the brain, mind, and behavior. Explore some of the major branches.

13 Major Branches of Psychology
There are a number of different branches of branches of psychology used to study the brain, mind, and behavior. Explore some of the major branches.

How to Write an APA Style Paper
Do you need to write an APA style paper but not sure where to begin? Here are some quick guidelines and tips to get you started on your APA format paper.

Ideas for Psychology Papers - Looking for a Great Topic
Have a psychology term paper to write and no idea where to begin? Check out some of these great topics for psychology papers to spark your creativity.

Social Psychology Research Topics
Are you looking for a good research topic for your social psychology class? Here are a few topic ideas to help spark your imagination.

What Is the Superego?
Freud suggested that the superego is the component of personality composed of our internalized ideals. Learn more about how the superego functions.

Clark Hull Biography (1884-1952)
Clark Hull was an important behaviorist thinker known for his drive reduction theory of motivation. Learn more about his life and work in this biography.

Philip Zimbardo Biography
Philip Zimbardo is an American psychologist perhaps best known for his famous Stanford Prison Experiment. Learn more about his life and theories.

Harry Harlow Biography (1905-1981)
Harry Harlow was an American psychologist best known for his research on social isolation and maternal deprivation. Learn more about his life and legacy.

Average Salaries for Psychologists
How much do psychologists earn? Learn more about the average salaries for a variety of different psychology jobs.

Psychology Courses: What to Consider Before You Sign Up
Are you planning to take a psychology course this year? Here are a few things you should consider before you sign up for a college psychology class.

How to Become a Psychiatrist
Are you interested in becoming a psychiatrist? Learn more about the educational requirements and steps you will need to follow to pursue this career.

What Is An Affectional Bond?
Psychologist John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth described affectional bonds as part of their influential attachment theory. Learn how these bonds work.

Clustering for Memory and Recall
Clustering is a way of organizing information in memory. This strategy can make it easier to remember information and recall it later on.

What Is Panic Disorder?
One characteristic symptom of panic disorder is panic attacks that occur suddenly and without warning. How many people experience panic disorder each year?

What Is Schizoid Personality Disorder?
Schizoid personality disorder is a chronic and pervasive condition characterized by detachment and aloofness. Learn the sypmtoms of this disorder.

What Is the Unconscious Mind?
Sigmund Freud described the unconscious as the reservoir of all the thoughts, feelings, and urges that lie outside of awareness. Learn more.

Initiative vs Guilt - Psychosocial Development Stage 3
Initiative versus guilt is the 3rd stage of Erikson's theory of psychsocial development. Discover what happens during this stage of development.

Two Types of Love: Compassionate and Passionate
Psychologist Elaine Hatfield suggested that their are two types of love: compassionate and passionate love. How do these types of love differ?

What Is Consumer Psychology?
Consumer psychology studies how and why we buy goods and services. Learn more about how psychologists study the science of consumer behavior.

Psychology Research Terms You Should Know
Learn more about some of the important terms and concepts you should know when it comes to psychology research methods.

42 Famous Psychologists You Should Know
Throughout psychology's relatively brief history, there have been many famous psychologists who have left their mark both on psychology and on the world at large. Learn about 42 famous psychologists.

42 Famous Psychologists You Should Know
Throughout psychology's relatively brief history, there have been many famous psychologists who have left their mark both on psychology and on the world at large. Learn about 42 famous psychologists.

42 Famous Psychologists You Should Know
Throughout psychology's relatively brief history, there have been many famous psychologists who have left their mark both on psychology and on the world at large. Learn about 42 famous psychologists.

What Is Extroversion?
Extroverts tend to gain energy from social situations. Discover some of the key characteristics of extroversion and how this trait influences behavior.

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Sigmund Freud Photobiography
Learn more about Sigmund Freud's life in this series of images portraying important moments, people, and influencesfrom early childhood to his final years.

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Evaluating Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory
Freud's theory of psychosexual development was controversial both now and in his own time. Learn more about some of the support and criticism of the psychosexual stages.

Freud's 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
Freud's psychosexual development theory is both famous and controversial. Learn about each of the five stages and the role that conflict plays in each stage.

Freud's 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
In Freud's theory of development, the psychosexual stages describe the way in which the libido guides behavior and development over the course of childhood.

The Oral Stage of Psychosexual Development
The oral stage is the first stage of psychosexual development. During this period of development, the libidinal energies are focused on the mouth.

The Anal Stage of Psychosexual Development
The anal stage is the second stage of psychosexual develop. During this period, the libidinal energies are focused on bowel and bladder control.

The Phallic Stage of Psychosexual Development
The phallic stage is the second stage of psychosexual development. During this period, the libidinal energies are focused on the genitals.

The Latent Period of Psychosexual Development
The latent period is the third stage of psychosexual development. During this time, the libidinal energies are largely inactive.

The Genital Stage of Psychosexual Development
The genital stage is the final stage of psychosexual development and is marked by the maturation of sexual interests.

Learn More About Sigmund Freud
Freud's psychosexual development theory is both famous and controversial. Learn about each of the five stages and the role that conflict plays in each stage.

Harry Harlow and the Nature of Love
In his controversial experiments, Harlow demonstrated the powerful effects of love. His research had a profound impact on the field of child development.

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Biography
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is a positive psychologist best known for his theory of flow. Learn more about his life, theories and contributions.

What Are Demand Characteristics in Psychology Research?
A demand characteristic can influence how a study participant behaves can pose a threat to the outcome of an experiment. How do researchers deal with this?

Social Psychology Practice and Overview
Social psychologists study group behavior such as social influence and social interaction influence. Learn more about what social psychologists do..

How Correlational Studies Are Used in Psychology
Correlational studies are one of the major types of psychology research. Learn more about how correlational research works.

Murray's Theory of Psychogenic Needs
Psychologist Henry Murray proposed a theory of personality based on needs. Learn more about these needs and how they relate to personality.

What Is the Mean (or Average)?
The mean is a calculation often used in statistics that is the mathematical average of a set of given numbers. Learn why the mean matters in psychology.

How to Write an Introduction for a Psychology Paper
A good introduction is a vital part of a psychology paper. This section should provide an overview of your topic and clarify your hypothesis.

How to Write a Results Section for an APA-Format Paper
The results section of your paper should report results without any type of subjective interpretation. Learn more about how to write a results section.

What Are Peak Experiences in Psychology?
What is a peak experience? Maslow believed that anyone is capable of having peak experiences, but people who are self-actualized have them more often.

What Is Social Comparison Theory and How Does it Work?
Social comparison process refers to the process people go through in order to know themselves in comparison to other people. Explore some examples.

What Is Social Loafing in Psychology?
Social loafing occurs when people are part of a group. When people are in a group, they tend to put forth less effort. Learn more about causes here.

What Is a Variable Interval Schedule of Reinforcement?
A variable-interval schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed.

What Is General Intelligence (G Factor)?
General intelligence, or the g factor, refers to a person's underlying intelligence that influences performance on tests of mental abilities.

What Is the Control Group in Psychology?
The control group plays an important role in the research process by giving researchers something with which to compare the experimental group.

Stanley Milgram - Social Psychologist Biography
Stanley Milgram was an American psychologist perhaps best remembered for his infamous obedience experiment. Learn more about his life and career.

10 Ways to Become More Resilient
While some people seem to come by resilience naturally, these behaviors can also be learned. Here are 10 things you can do to become more resilient.

Characteristics of Self Actualized People
Self-actualization involves fulfilling your potential and being all you can be. Are you self-actualized? Discover some of the key characteristics.

5 Reasons to Study Human Development
Why should you study human development? It can help you better understand others and provide insight into your children's development.

Conditioned Stimulus - Psychology Definition
The conditioned stimulus is a previously neutral stimulus that eventually comes to evoke a conditioned response. Explore a few real-world examples.

What Is Conflict? - Psychology Definition
Erik Erikson described a conflict as a turning point in development. Learn more about some of the major conflicts that people face throughout life.

What Is Stimulus Discrimination Psychology?
Discrimination is the ability to differentiate between a learned stimulus and similar stimuli. Learn about the role it plays in conditioning.

Ego: The Rational Part of Personality (Psychology)
Sigmund Freud described the ego as the part of the personality that mediates between the demands of the id, superego, and reality.

What Is Acquisition? (Classical Conditioning)
Acquisition occurs at the beginning of the learning process when the response is first established. Learn more about how new behaviors are acquired.

Informed Consent Definition in Psychology
Informed consent ensures that patient, clients and research participants are aware of the risks involved in a particular treatment, procedure or study.

What Is the Need to Belong in Psychology?
The need to belong to social groups can play a powerful role in human behavior. Discover how belongingness influences motivations and social behavior.

Religion According to Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud wrote extensively about spirituality, describing religion as an infantile form of wish fulfillment. Learn about Freud's religious views.

What Is Figure-Ground Perception in Psychology?
Figure-ground perception involves simplifying a scene into a figure and background. Learn more about how we distinguish between figure and ground.

Why Do You Have a Blind Spot?
While the human eye can be remarkably accurate, it isn't perfect and all of us have a blind spot. Learn why you have a blind spot and how to detect it.

What Is a Case Study in Psychology?
In psychology, a case study is a type of research that involves an in-depth look at a single person or group. Explore different types of case studies.

The Negative Photo or Picture Illusion - How It Works
The negative photo illusion is a fascinating way to learn about the brain and perceptual system. Check out the illusion and learn about how it works.

Why Do I Have to Take a Psychology Class?
Do you really need to take psychology? Here are a few great reasons why you should, even if you're not a psychology major.

80 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Psychology
If you've ever wanted to know more about psychology, here are 80 amazing facts about topics such as the brain, development, social behavior, and personality.

Basics of Biological Psychology - the Brain and Behavior
In lesson three of the Introduction to Psychology course, you will learn more about the biological influences on the brain and behavior.

A Lesson on Human Memory
In this psychology lesson, take a closer look at the basics of human memory. Learn how memories are made, retrieved, forgotten, and even improved.

Lesson One - An Introduction to Psychology
In the first lesson of the Introduction to Psychology course, you will learn more about some of the basics of psychology.

What Are the Different States of Consciousness?
Human consciousness plays a major role in many aspects of life, thought and behavior. Learn more about the different states of consciousness.

Graduate Level Psychology Careers
In lesson seven of the free careers in psychology course, we'll explore some of the options that are available with a graduate degree in psychology.

The Incentive Theory of Motivation
The incentive theory of motivation suggests that we are motivated to engage in behaviors in order to gain rewards. Learn more about this theory and how this type of motivation works.

Online Therapy: A Closer Look at Internet Psychotherapy
Online therapy, or e-therapy, refers to mental health treatment delivered over the Internet. Learn more about how online psychotherapy works.

Blue in Color Psychology - Impact on Mood
Color psychology is concerned with the effects of color on mood, emotion, and behavior. Find information on the color psychology of blue.

5 Things You Should Know About Social Psychology
Social psychology plays a powerful role in our lives, from influencing how we think to how we behave. Here are just a few concepts you need to know.

Good Minors for Psychology Majors
Do psychology majors really need a minor? Here are some tips to decide how to choose a minor and if an academic minor is right for you.

Problems in Decision-Making
The decision-making process is often susceptible to errors, fallacies, and biases. Learn more about some of the mistakes we make when making decisions.

What Does Your Car Color Say About Your Personality?
Does the color of the car you drive reveal something about your personality? Learn how your product choices might give clues about your personality.

What Is a Cognitive Bias? Definition and Examples
Cognitive biases influence how we think and can lead to errors in decisions and judgments. How do these biases work? What impact do they have? Learn more...

Psychology Science Fair Project Ideas
Are you participating in a psychology science fair? Then check out some of these psychology science fair ideas for investigation and inspiration.

How to Form a Testable Hypothesis in an Experiment
The first steps of the scientific method involve forming a hypothesis and collecting data. Learn more about how to develop a testable hypothesis.

Attribution: How We Explain Behavior
In social psychology, attribution involves making inferences about the behaviors of others. Attributions, however, are often prone to errors and biases.

The Four Major Personality Perspectives
There are numerous different perspectives on personality, all of which have contributed to our understanding of human personality.

What Is the Self-Serving Bias?
The self-serving bias is a common type of cognitive bias often used to protect self-esteem. Learn how this bias works and explore real-world examples.

What Is Personal Construct Theory?
The theory of personal constructs stresses the active nature of people as they evaluate the world around them. Learn more about the personal construct theory.

5 Personality Traits of Extroverts
Do you like being around people? Feel energized by spending time with others? You just might be an extrovert. Learn more about this personality type.

Why Study Psychology? Here Are Ten Great Reasons
Wondering why you should learn more about psychology? Here are 10 great reasons why psychology can make you a better informed and more critical thinker.

What Is Selective Attention?
Selective attention involves filtering out irrelevant information around us and focusing on the things that demand our attention. Learn how this works.

High School Classes for Psychology Majors
Planning to major in psychology? Taking the right classes in high school can ensure later success in college. Discover which psychology classes to take now.

What Is Behavior Analysis?
Behavior analysis is rooted in the principles of behaviorism. Learn how this technique is used to change behaviors and teach new skills.

Who Were the Neo-Freudians and What Did They Believe?
Neo-Freudians agreed with Sigmund Freud on some points, but their disagreements with some things led them to branch out with their own unique theories.

What Is a Phobia? Types, Symptoms and Treatments
A phobia is an irrational and excessive fear of an object or situation. Such fears can often lead to major interruptions in normal functioning. Learn more.

What Is a Self-Report Inventory in Psychology?
A self-report inventory is a commonly used tool in psychological research. Discover how and why these inventories are often used in psychology.

Consciousness: The Psychology of Awareness
Consciousness is your awareness of yourself and your environment. Some different aspects of consciousness include sleep, dreams, hypnosis and meditation.

What Is a Secondary Reinforcer?
Secondary reinforcement involves creating an association between a stimulus and a primary reinforcer. Learn how secondary reinforcement works.

What Is Abnormal Psychology?
Abnormal psychology the branch of psychology focused on abnormal behavior and psychopathology. Learn more about how psychologists define abnormality.

What Is Permissive Parenting? Characteristics, Effects
Permissive parenting is characterized by parents who are responsive to their children, but lack rules and discipline. How does this impact children?

What Is Uninvolved Parenting?
Uninvolved parenting is characterized by undemanding and unresponsive parents. Learn about uninvolved parenting and the effect it has on children.

What Working Conditions Are Like for Psychologists
The working conditions of psychologists vary widely based on the specialty area in which they are employed. Learn about some different work settings.

The Nature of Psychology Work
Psychology is a diverse field with numerous career options. Learn more about what psychologists do and the nature of psychology work.

Issues in Developmental Psychology
There are a number of issues in developmental psychology including the age-old nature vs nurture debate. Learn more about some of the major questions about development.

Full-Text Psychology Journals - Free Index
An index of journals that offer at least some free access to full-text psychology articles. A good resources for psychology students or those interested in the latest psychology research.

Full-Text Psychology Journals - Page 2
Psychology. Page 2.

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology
There are a number developmental research methods used in psychology. Learn more about a few different approaches to the study of human development.

What Is Attention?
Attention is the process of selectively focusing on specific information in the environment. Learn about why this resource is selective and limited.

What's the Difference Between a BA and a BS in Psychology?
Are you trying to decide between a bachelor of arts (BA) or bachelor of science (BS) in psychology? Here are some key factors you need to consider.

Steps of the Scientific Method in Psychology Research
Psychologists use the scientific method to investigate many aspects of the mind and behavior. Learn more about the key steps in the scientific method.​

What Is a Zygote? The One-Celled Beginning of Life
After an ovum has been fertilized, it becomes known as a zygote. Learn more about this tiny cell and the journey it makes as it develops.

Understanding Body Language: What Arms and Legs Tell Us
Page 6 of series on body language. The arms and legs can be useful in conveying nonverbal information. e.g. Crossing the arms can indicate defensiveness.

Personal Space (From Intimate to Public) - Explanation
Just as body movements and facial expressions can communicate a great deal of nonverbal information, so can this physical space between individuals. Page 8.

Understanding Body Language: Facial Expressions
The facial expressions used to convey fear, anger, sadness, and happiness are similar throughout the world. Page 2 of 9 pages on body language.

Eyes - Body Language of the Eyes
The eyes can reveal a great deal about what a person is feeling. Learn more about how eyes are important in understanding body language.

Understanding Body Language: What The Mouth Can Tell Us
Mouth expressions and movements can also be essential in reading body language. Page 4.

Understanding Body Language: What Gestures Tell Us
Gestures can be some of the most direct and obvious body language signals. But some differ from culture to culture. Page 5 of 9 pages on body language.

Understanding Body Language: What Does Posture Tell Us?
Posture, or how we hold our bodies, can serve as an important part of body language. Page 7 of 9 in the series.

References
Body language refers to the nonverbal signals that we use to communicate. Learn more about some of the things you should look for when trying to read and understand body language.

What Is Educational Psychology?
Educational psychology is devoted to the study of how people learn including individual differences in learning, gifted learners, learning disabilities.

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence
Which plays a greater role in determining intelligence: genetic or environmental factors? Learn more about different factors that influence IQ.

What Is Transactional Leadership?
Transactional leadership centers on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. Learn more about this leadership style.

Aversion Therapy (What It Is and How It Works)
Aversion therapy uses principles from behavioral psychology to help reduce or eliminate unwanted behaviors. Learn more about how this process works.

What Is a Synapse and What Does It Do?
A synapse is an important part of the nervous system involved in the transmission of nerve signals. Learn about what synapses do and how they work.

All-Or-None Law - Neuropsychology Term
The all-or-none law is a principle that applies to the firing of neurons. Learn more about what the all-or-none law is and how it relates to neural firing.

What Is Iconic Memory? Definition and Examples
Iconic memory is a type of visual sensory memory that lasts for only 1/4 of a second. Learn more about how iconic memory works and explore examples.

Pavlov's Dogs: The Discovery of Classical Conditioning
How did Pavlov's experiments with dogs lead to one of the greatest discoveries in psychology?​ Learn more about Pavlov's dogs and classical conditioning.

A Timeline of Modern Psychology: Dates and Events
Learn about the timeline of events in psychology starting with the founding of the first psychology lab in the late 1870s through the 21st-century.

Life Instincts (Eros) and Death Instincts (Thanatos)
Sigmund Freud believed that all instincts fit into one of two classes: the life instincts and the death instincts. Learn more about these drives.

Within Subjects Design (What It Is and How It's Used)
In a within-subjects design, all participants are exposed to the independent variable. One advantage is that it does not require a large pool of subjects.

What Is Positive Psychology?
Positive psychology is a relatively new area that focuses on helping people be happier. Learn how it might help you live a healthier, happier life.

What Is Flow? The Psychology Behind This State of Mind
Flow is the mental state of being completely immersed in an activity. Learn more about how flow works and some of the benefits of this mental state.

Tips for Writing an Essay in APA Format
Are you struggling to write an essay for a psychology class? Discover great tips and basic rules that will help you write a winning APA format essay.

The ENTP Personality Type and Characteristics
ENTPs are great conversationalists and are often described as witty and creative. Learn more about the characteristics of this personality type.

Social and Emotional Developmental Milestones
Learn more about some of the major social and emotional milestones that occur during the first five years of human life.

Child Behavioral Warning Signs
Keeping an eye out for a few child behavior warning signs can help parents ensure that their kids are receiving high-quality care.

Alfred Adler Biography - Career and Life
Alfred Adler was the found of Individual Psychology and is often considered one of the most important figures in psychology history.

Kurt Lewin Biography and Timeline (1890-1947)
Kurt Lewin was the father of modern social psychology. Learn about his pioneering work as well as his life, career, and contributions to psychology.

Carl Rogers Biography - His Life and Theories
Carl Rogers helped found humanistic psychology and was one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century. Learn more about his theories.

Sigmund Freud Biography - Founder of Psychoanalysis
Time Magazine once listed Sigmund Freud as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. Learn more about his remarkable life and career.

Wilhelm Wundt Biography: The Father of Psychology
Wilhelm Wundt founded the world's first psychology lab and became the father of psychology. Learn about his life and contributions to psychology.

What Is Episodic Memory? (Definition and Examples)
Episodic memory: long-term memory for specific event and experiences. Learn more about how this type of memory works and why it is important.

What Is a Random Sample in Psychology Research?
A random sample involves selecting a smaller subset of individuals from a larger population. Learn how and why random samples are used in psychology.

What Is the Central Nervous System?
The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. It controls responses, receiving and sending messages from other parts of the body.

What Is a Double-Blind Study?
In a double-blind study, participants and experimenters do not know who is receiving a particular treatment. Learn how this works and explore examples.

What Is a Psychological Fixation?
A fixation can occur when a person become

What Is Gate Control Theory?
The gate control theory of pain suggests that the spinal cord contains a neurological 'gate' that controls pain signals to the brain.

What Is Freud's Pleasure Principle?
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, the pleasure principle is the driving force of the id. Learn more about how this process works.

What Is Freud's Reality Principle?
The reality principle, a Freudian concept, plays an important role in satisfying the demands of the id in ways that are socially appropriate.

Hindsight Bias - Glossary of Psychology Terms
People have a tendency to view events as more predictable than they really are in hindsight. In psychology, this is known as the hindsight bias.

What Is Social Cognition?
Social cognition is an important topic within social psychology focused on how we store, process, and use information about other people.​

How to Overcome the Bystander Effect
The bystander effect can be a serious problem, but there are things you can do to avoid becoming an onlooker and inspire others to help as well.

Personality - Psychology Research Topics
Looking for a good idea for a research topic about personality? Here's a collection of ideas to help inspire your research and help you get started.

5 Ways Your Brain Plays Tricks On You
Your brain is capable of some amazing things - but it isn't perfect. Here are a few ways that your brain makes mistakes or even downright lies to you.

Steps on How to Boost Your Creativity
Have you ever wanted to boost your creativity? Check out some of these tips to help you develop your creative thinking skills.

Steps on How to Boost Your Creativity
Have you ever wanted to boost your creativity? Check out some of these tips to help you develop your creative thinking skills.

Edward B. Titchener Biography
Edward B. Titchener is best remembered for his influence on the school of thought known as structuralism. Learn more about his life.

The Muller-Lyer Illusion - How It Works
In the Muller-Lyer Illusion, two lines appear to be of different lengths even though they are the same. Discover how this optical illusion works.

Is Psychoanalysis Still Relevant Today?
Psychoanalysis is often viewed as a historical artifact, but can it still play a role in modern psychology? Learn more what experts have to say about the relevance of psychoanalysis in today's world.

Considerations for Ethical Research in Psychology
There are a number of ethical considerations in psychology research such as informed consent and confidentiality. Learn more about ethical research.

Anna O - Her Life and Impact on Psychology
Sigmund Freud never actually met Anna O., yet her case played a major role in the development of psychoanalysis and talk therapy.

William James Biography
William James is often referred to as the father of American psychology. Explore his life, work, and theories.

Why Remembering Also Leads to Forgetting
New research looks at how remembering strengthens certain memories while weakening others. Learn more about this retrieval-induced forgetting.

What Is Willpower?
Willpower is often thought of as resisting your immediate desires in order to achieve long-term goals.

Why Willpower Is Important?
Willpower can do more than help you reach your goals. It might help you become more successful in almost every area of your life.

Willpower 101: The Psychology of Self-Control
Is willpower really all it takes to get what you want? Discover why willpower matters and what you can do to boost yours.

So What Can You Do to Improve Your Willpower?
Willpower is like a muscle and it can become stronger with the right techniques. Learn what you can do to boost your willpower.

Who Can Provide Psychotherapy?
Providers of psychotherapy and other mental health services may hold a number of titles, credentials or licensures. Some job titles such as

When Do Your Mental Powers Peak?
At what age are your mental powers strongest? New research suggests that mental abilities peak at different times, some later than you might think.

When Is Sigmund Freud's Birthday?
Sigmund Freud's birth marks an important date in psychology history. Learn more when Sigmund Freud's birthday is and his early life and family.

What Is the Moro Reflex? Review Your Psychology Terms
The Moro reflex in an involuntary response that is present at birth and lasts until approximately three to six months.

What Is the Misinformation Effect?
The things we learn after an event can interfere or alter our original memories of the event itself, which experts refer to as the misinformation effect.

What Is the Experimental Group?
The experimental group is the group of participants that receive the treatment in a psychology experiment. Learn more about why experimental groups are so important.

Experimental Method - Psychology
Psychologists often use the experimental method to determine if changes in one variable lead to changes in another variable.

Why Is Validity Important to Psychological Tests?
Validity is one of the most important factors to consider when determining the merits of a psychological test. What is validity? How do we measure it?

Zone of Proximal Development | About Psychology
The zone of proximal development, or the distance between what a learner can do with help and without help, plays an important role in Vygotsky's theory.

What Is Transpersonal Psychology?
Transpersonal psychology is a perspective focused on understanding the spiritual side of human existence. Topics such as meditation and peak experiences are often studied in this field.

Transformational Leadership: Inspire and Motivate
Transformational leadership is a leadership style that leads to positive changes in those who follow. Learn why these leaders can be so effective.

What Is the Primary Process in Freudian Theory?
According to Freud's theory of personality, the primary process helps deal with the tension created by the pleasure principle.

What Is the Reflected Appraisal Process?
The reflected appraisal process is one of the things that influences the development of self-concept. Discover some factors that affect this process.

What Is the Somatic Nervous System?
The somatic nervous system carries motor and sensory signals to and from from the CNS. Learn more about how the somatic system works.

What Is the Libido in Psychology?
In psychoanalysis, the libido refers to all of the energy generated by the instincts that serves as the driving force behind all human behavior.

What Is the Just-World Phenomenon?
We have a tendency to believe that the world is just and that people get what they deserve. How does this phenomenon impact our attitudes and behavior?

What Is the Cerebellum? - Definition and Function
The cerebellum is located near the brainstem and plays and important role in motor skills and coordination. Learn more about the role of the cerebellum.

What Is the Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion?
The Cannon-Bard theory is one theory of emotion that argues that physical arousal does not have to occur before an emotion.

What Is the Electra Complex?
Carl Jung described the Electra complex as the female version of the Oedipus complex. Learn more about how the Electra complex works.

The Id Definition in Psychology
The id is the part of personality made up of unconscious energy that focuses on fulfilling urges and desires. Learn how the id influences personality.

Stimulus Generalization
Stimulus generalization is the tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Learn how this works.

What Is the American Psychological Association?
The American Psychological Association, or APA, is the largest professional and scientific organization of psychologists in the United States.

What Is the Autonomic Nervous System?
The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is regulates involuntary body functions including digestion and heartbeat.

What Is Sensory Adaptation?
Sensory adaptation is a process that involves a change in sensitivity to a constant stimulus. Learn more about how this works and why it happens.

Reliability | Consistency in Psychometrics
Reliability is a vital component of a trustworthy psychological test. Learn more about what reliability is and how it is measured.

What Is Random Assignment In Psychology?
Random assignment involves using chance to make sure that all participants have an equal likelihood of being assigned to a group. Learn how this works.

What Is Replication in Psychology Research?
Replication involves repeating a research study, but this is not always easy. One large-scale study found that 64% of psychology studies failed to replicate.

What Is Social Exchange Theory in Psychology?
Social exchange theory suggests that social behavior is the result of an exchange process.

What Is Reciprocal Determinism?
Bandura's concept of reciprocal determinism describes how the individual, the environment, and behavior influence one another. Learn more.

What Is Repetition Blindness?
When similar items are presented quickly in a series, we often miss the second instance of an item. Discover why we are sometimes blind to repetition.

What Is Psychoanalytic Therapy?
Psychoanalytic therapy is based upon the theories of Sigmund Freud and involves exploring unconscious thoughts and childhood experiences. Learn more.

What Is a Longitudinal Study? | About Psychology
A longitudinal study involves conducting research over a period of time, sometimes for months or even years. Learn more about how these studies work.

What Is Industrial Organizational Psychology?
What exactly is industrial organizational psychology? Learn more in this brief overview of the field that is focused on the study of human behavior in the workplace.

Passive Aggressive | What It Is & Why It Happens
Passive-aggressiveness is behavior that involves using indirect aggression towards others. Learn more about how it manifests and why it happens.

Manifest Content of Dreams: A Definition with Examples
The manifest content involves the actual story and events that occur during a dream. Learn more about the meaning lies behind this manifest content.

What Is Naturalistic Observation? (Definition and Examples)
Naturalistic observation is a research method often used in psychology and other social sciences. Learn how it works and explore examples.

What Is Object Permanence?
Object permanence is the ability to understand that objects still exist even if they are no longer visible. Discover when this ability first appears.

What Is Learning?
Learning is a lasting change in behavior that results from experience. Learn more about some of the different ways that learning takes place.

What Is Laissez-Faire Leadership? The Pros and Cons
Laissez-faire leadership is a hands-off approach that allows followers to set rules and make decisions. Discover the pros and cons of this style.

What Is Instrumental Conditioning? (Definition and Examples)
Instrumental conditioning is another term used for the operant conditioning process first described by B.F. Skinner. Learn more about how this works.

What Is Latent Learning in Psychology?
Latent learning involves gaining knowledge even though that learning is not immediately evident. Learn more about how this type of learning works.

What Exactly Is Meditation?
Research has shown that meditation has a range of psychological benefits. Learn more about what meditation is, how it works and its effects.

What Is Hypnosis and How Is It Used In Psychology?
Hypnosis has been used to treat a wide number of ailments, yet many understand very little about this process. Learn more in this overview of hypnosis.

Health Psychology Overview and Description
Health psychology focuses on how biology, psychology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. Learn in this overview of the field.

What Is Habituation? Review Your Psychology Terms
What happens after a stimulus has been presented over and over again? Learn more about what habituation is, why it occurs and a few examples.