Sociology Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Sociology Dictionary
The glossary contains an A to Z listing of sociological terms with definitions and examples. Find brief and extended definitions of a wide variety of sociological topics.Terms included in the sociology dictionary cover every subject and sub-field of sociology, from research methods to deviance. New terms are added regularly.

Sociology Dictionary: C Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with C. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Content Analysis: Research Method to Study Social Life
Sociologists use content analysis to draw broad conclusions about societal issues, such as gender roles and business policy. Learn how it works.

Systematic Sample
A systematic sample is a sample design in which a list of the population...

Sociology Dictionary: M Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with M. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociological Theory
Much of what we know about societies and social behavior has emerged thanks to various sociology theories. Sociology students typically spend a great deal of time studying these different theories. Some theories have fallen out of favor, while others remain widely accepted, but all have contributed tremendously to our understanding of society and social behavior. By learning more about these theories, you can gain a deeper and richer understanding of sociology's past, present and future.

Key Theoretical Concepts
Key theoretical concepts offered in the work of both classical and contemporary social theorists.

A Brief Guide to Modernization Theory
Modernization theory was developed and popularized by Western academics in the 1950s and 60s, but is not without a wide swath of critics.

About Sociology: Research, Theories and News
View the world as a sociologist with a deeper knowledge of the history of sociology, famous sociologists and theories, and current research and news.

Understanding Aggregates and Social Aggregates in Sociology
Sociologists rely on two kinds of aggregates in their research: social aggregates and aggregate data. Learn what they are and why they are useful here.

Sociology 101: The Basics
Sociology 101 covers the basic questions about the field of sociology, such as

Erving Goffman's Front Stage and Back Stage Behavior
What's the impact of social expectation on our behavior? Erving Goffman helps us parse this with the concepts of front stage and back stage behavior.

What the Republican Platform Means for Corporations and Workers
Many among the poor and working classes support Trump for president, but research suggests the Republican Platform will do them more harm than good.

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Trump's Popularity Explained in Nine Charts
Donald Trump has no political experience or relevant credentials for the role of President, so why do so many choose him over Hillary Clinton?

How Do Prejudice and Racism Differ?
While some forms of prejudice are racial in nature, not all forms foster economic and social inequality.

Current Events in Sociological Context
A sociological discussion of current events and news items within the U.S. and around the world.

Why We Still Need Labor Day, and I Don't Mean Barbecues
In honor of Labor Day, let's rally around the need for a living wage, full-time work, and a return to the 40-hour work week. Workers of the world, unite!

On Police Racism and Violence and #BlackLivesMatter
Seeking research-based information and insights into racist police practices and those working to change them? You've come to the right place.

Can Documentary Films Really Change?
A 2015 study published in American Sociological Review found that the film 'Gasland' helped grow the anti-fracking movement and impacted policy.

Do Women Regret Having Abortions?
Anti-abortion activists often argue that the procedure is emotionally dangerous, and leaves women with painful regret. Turns out the very opposite is true.

Does Being Gay Affect Parenting?
The social science consensus is that same-sex parenting does not harm children, and a new study shows that it actually comes with some benefits.

Unmarried Women Are More Politically Liberal. Here's Why.
A 2015 study by a team of social scientists found that women who have never been married have a greater sense of

An Overview of Critical Theory
Critical Theory is a type of theory that aims to critique society, social structures, and systems of power, and to foster egalitarian social change.

Understanding Functionalist Theory
The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology.

Does Skin Color Affect How You Rate Intelligence of Others?
A new study found that white people view lighter-skinned blacks and Latinos as smarter than their darker counterparts.

What is Correlation Analysis?
Correlation analysis is useful for determining the direction and strength of a relationship between two variables.

Insights on Love and Marriage From Social Scientists and Aziz Ansari
Find out what happened when three social scientists, the founder of OK Cupid, and Aziz Ansari discussed dating, mating, and marriage in the digital age.

Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By In America
Nickel and Dimed: On Not Getting By In America is a book by Barbara Ehrenreich based on her ethnographic research on low-wage jobs in America. Inspired in part by the rhetoric surrounding welfare reform at the time, she decided to immerse herself into the world of low-wage earning Americans.

Max Weber Biography - Founding Figure of Sociology
Biography of Max Weber, a founding figure in the field of sociology. Weber is known for his ideas on bureaucracy as well as his thesis of the

What The Whiteness Project Reveals About Race in the U.S.
The Whiteness Project features white people in the U.S. talking about race and racism. What they say may shock you.

The Lemonade Syllabus Is Here to Help
Love Beyonce's Lemonade? Then The Lemonade Syllabus is a must read.

Sound Bites: Research In the News
A sociologist reframes the news media's discussion of research findings.

Sociology Dictionary: S Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with S. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Statistics
Learn about the major statistical concepts used in sociology.

Ask a Sociologist
From a sociologist, thoughtful responses to questions about trends, social problems, and current events.

Sex Ratio - Definition in the Study of Sociology
The sex ratio is the number of males and females for every 100 females...

Social Closure - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Social closure is a concept that was first introduced by Max Weber and...

Social System - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A social system is an interdependent set of cultural and structural...

W.E.B. Du Bois - Biographical Profile
Biography of W.E.B. Du Bois, an American sociologist best known for his role in the civil rights movement. He was the first African American to earn a doctorate degree from Harvard University and served as the head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.

Understanding Racial Formation Theory
Omi and Winant's theory of racial formation links social structure and stratification to common sense notions of race and racial categories.

Patrimonialism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Patrimonialism is a social system in which a royal elite rules through...

Thanksgiving is the Happiest Day, and Other Fascinating Facts
Thanksgiving is the happiest day in the U.S., at least according to our Facebook status updates. Click to learn more about this and other insights.

Keep Child Labor and Slavery Out of Halloween Chocolate
Child labor, slavery, and poverty have no place in our Halloween candy. This year, choose fair or direct trade chocolate.

The Charleston Shooting and the Problem of White Supremacy
Whether you call it mass murder, a hate crime, or terrorism, the shooting in Charleston must be recognized as an act of white supremacy.

The Black Civil Rights Movement is Back
Though fragmented since the late 1960s, the Black Civil Rights Movement now appears to be back.

Distribution of Education in the U.S.
How many people in the U.S. have a college degree? Data from Pew Research Center show that educational attainment, at all levels, is on the upswing. Page 7.

Effect of Race on Wealth in the U.S.
What is the effect of race on wealth in the U.S.? Data show systemic racism channels wealth to whites and away from Blacks and Latinos. Page 10.

The Effect of Race on Income in the U.S.
What is the impact of race on income in the U.S.? Census data show very clear racial disparities in median household earnings. Page 9.

Who Goes to College?
Does race affect whether one completes a college degree? Data from Pew Research Center seem to suggest it does, with Asians far outpacing all others. Page 8.

Effect of Gender on Wages in the U.S.
How does gender affect earnings? Data show a declining but persistent gap between men and women. Page 4.

How Many Americans Are in Poverty? Who Are They?
How many people in the U.S. are in poverty, and who are they? Visual data from the U.S. Census provides the answers. Page 3.

Impact of Education on Income
How does education affect income in the U.S.? Data from Pew Research Center show that the effect is strong, and growing. Page 6.

Impact of Education on Wealth
How does educational attainment affect wealth? Find out how those who have a college degree or higher fare against others. Page 5.

Income Distribution in the U.S.
What is the median income in the U.S.? Census data show majority are at the lower end of the spectrum. Page 2.

Wealth Distribution in the U.S.
A visual illustration of wealth distribution, also known as wealth inequality, in the United States.

Ten Graphs Tell the Story
What is social stratification, and how do race, class, and gender affect it? This slide show brings the concept to life with compelling visualizations.

Ten Graphs Tell the Story
What is social stratification, and how do race, class, and gender affect it? This slide show brings the concept to life with compelling visualizations.

What Does 'Consumerism' Mean?
What does 'consumerism' mean? How is it different from 'consumption'? Sociologists Zygmunt Bauman, Colin Campbell, and Robert Dunn help us understand.

Consumerist Culture
A discussion of the sociological concept

What is Cultural Hegemony?
What is cultural hegemony? A sociologist explains Antonio Gramsci's concept, and why it's relevant to understanding inequality in today's world.

Social Structure Defined
Social structure is the organized set of social institutions and patterns of institutionalized relationships that together compose society.

What Is Sociology?
Just starting to learn about sociology? Looking for a primer on the field, its methods, and subfields? We've got you covered.

What Is Systemic Racism?
Systemic racism is a theoretical concept and a reality. Learn why social scientists and anti-racist activists believe understanding it is crucial.

Sociology Dictionary: F Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with F. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

The Sociologist's Take on Feminism
Feminism gets a bad rap for being anti-men, but it's never really been about men or women, really, but about creating just and equal social systems.

Five Facts About Police Killings and Race
Facts culled from several research reports put the outrage at the non-indictment of Darren Wilson in context.

A Brief Biography of George Herbert Mead
George Herbert Mead was an American sociologist who pioneered symbolic interaction theory and is considered to be the founder of social psychology.

Read Emma Watson's Speech on Gender Equality at the UN
A full transcript of actor Emma Watson's informed and compelling UN speech on gender equality and the #HeForShe campaign.

Understanding Marx's Base and Superstructure
What are base and superstructure? Why did Marx write about them? A sociologist provides a brief and easy to understand overview of these concepts.

Sociology Dictionary: R Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with R. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Racism: A Sociological Definition
Racism today takes many forms, some of which are overt, but most which are covert, and do not appear, at first glance, to be racist.

Meet the People Behind Donald Trump's Popularity
A host of research findings from Pew Research Center sheds light on who Trump supporters are and why they support him.

What is Cultural Capital? Do I Have It?
Cultural capital, one of the most important concepts in sociology, refers to the intangible assets an individual possesses and has at their disposal.

A Brief Biography of Karl Mark
Karl Marx, born in Prussia in 1818, was a political economist, activist, and journalist who is considered a founding figure in sociology.

Types of Sampling Designs Used in Sociology
What's the best sampling technique for your research? Choose from a variety of probability or non-probability models.

Sociological Explanations Of Deviant Behavior
What causes deviant behavior? There are four major sociological theories that seek to answer this question.

Sociology of Social Inequality
Social inequality results from a society organized by hierarchies of class, race, and gender that broker access to resources and rights.

Types of Crimes
A crime is defined as any act that is contrary to legal code or laws. Find out how crimes are categorized and how sociologists study them here.

An Overview of Labeling Theory in Sociology
Labeling theory posits that our identities and behaviors are shaped by how others label us and interact with us based on the label applied.

An Overview of Sociological Theories
Learn about fifteen major theories within sociology, how to apply them, and what makes some of them controversial.

An Overview of Sociological Theories
Learn about fifteen major theories within sociology, how to apply them, and what makes some of them controversial.

Overview of Social Phenomenology
Social ​phenomenology is an approach within the field of sociology that aims to reveal what role human awareness plays in the production of social action, social situations, and social worlds.

An Overview to Chaos Theory in Sociology
In the social sciences, chaos theory is the study of complex non-linear systems of social complexity. It is not about disorder, but rather is about very complicated systems of order.

Overview of Sociobiology Theory
Sociobiology is the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior. It is based on the premise that some behaviors are at lease partly inherited and can be affected by natural selection.

Rational Choice Theory
Economics plays a huge role in human behavior. That is, people are often motivated by money and the possibility of making a profit, calculating the likely costs and benefits of any action before deciding what to do. This way of thinking is called rational choice theory.

Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory is a theory that attempts to explain socialization and its effect on the development of the self.

The Connection Between Gun Control Legislation and Gun Crime
A new international study seeks to end the debate on whether gun control actually reduces gun violence. That found, unsurprisingly, that it does.

What is Normal Distribution?
In statistics and research, you will often hear the term normal distribution, but what exactly does this mean? Find out here.

How to Conduct an In-Depth Interview
In-depth interviews are a commonly used research method within sociology. Find out more about how they are conducted and why they are effective.

The Sociology of the Family
Within the sociology of the family researchers examine roles and dynamics within families and how the family interacts with other aspects of society.

Get the Facts on Mass Shootings in the U.S.
Are mass shootings on the rise? Would an assault weapons ban help reduce the problem? Find out the answers to these and other questions here.

Who Is Most at Risk During a Heat Wave?
In 1995 a Chicago heat wave left over 700 dead. Sociologist Eric Klinenberg has some tips on how to prevent such a death toll from happening again.

Surveys: Questionnaires, Interviews, and Telephone Polls
Surveys are the most commonly used tool in sociological research. Find out which type of survey is best for your research.

Sociology of Deviance and Crime
Social norms and ideas about deviance vary across place and context. Find out how sociologists approach the study of them here.

The Study of Suicide by Emile Durkheim
Emile Durkheim's study of suicide was groundbreaking because it revealed that suicide can be caused by social rather than individual factors.

What is a Convenience Sample?
A convenience sample is one of the easiest to create, but is it the best? Find out more about the technique, and the pros and cons of it here.

Living With Your Parents? You're Not Alone
A study of census data found that, for the first time since 1880, more young adults are living with their parents than with a romantic partner.

Four Things That Set Americans Apart and Why They Matter
The values of Americans differ greatly from those in other rich nations, and how they differ may pose a problem.

The Major Theoretical Perspectives of Sociology
A theoretical perspective can be generally defined as a set of assumptions that guide one's thinking, and in sociology, there are four major ones.

Understanding Purposive Sampling
A purposive sample is one that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the purpose of the study. Learn more here.

Understanding Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics
Find out what descriptive and inferential statistics are, how they differ, and how social scientists use them in research.

Why You Should Never Take a Job Below Your Skill Level
Desperate for a job and considering one below your skill level? The results of this study will encourage you to reconsider.

Research Methods
Learn more about the different types of research methods commonly used by sociologists.

Research and Methodology
Learn more about research and methodology within the field of sociology. Here you will learn about quantitative vs. qualitative research, different research methodologies, and statistical concepts.

Research Tools
Learn more about the research tools used in social science research and how to use them.

Types of Samples
When conducting research, it is almost always impossible to study the entire population that you are interested in. As a result, researchers use samples as a way to gather data. A sample is a subset of the population being studied. It represents the larger population and is used to draw inferences about that population. It is a research technique widely used in the social sciences as a way to gather information about a population without having to measure the entire population. Explore the different types and ways of choosing a sample from a population.

How To Construct an Index for Research
An index is a composite measure of variables that is often used in social science research. Learn how to create one here.

Major Sociological Works
Discover some of the major sociological works that helped define and shape the field of sociology. Here you will find major historical research studies and projects that have contributed to the way we think about social behavior.

What You Need to Know About 'The Communist Manifesto'
The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels is one of the most famous and widely taught texts in modern history. Find out why and get an overview here.

All About That (Max) Weber
About.com's resource for all things Weber: his life, his work, and his sociological legacy.

What's the Difference Between Hillary and Bernie?
A sociologist weighs in on the socio-economic implications of the differing platforms of Bernie Sanders and Hillary Clinton.

How To Use Focus Groups in Research
Focus groups are a form of qualitative research used by sociologists and other social scientists. Find out if this method is right for your research!

Understanding Symbolic Interaction Theory
The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism, is a major framework of sociological theory.

Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity
Erving Goffman's Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity is a hallmark of sociology, offering valuable insights into everyday life.

Max Weber's Greatest Hits
A short review of Max Weber's theories of culture and economy, authority, and the iron cage of bureaucracy.

Understanding Scales Of Measurement
A scale of measurement is a way to measure variables for research. Learn more about the four most commonly used scales here.

Why Emile Durkheim Matters to Today's Sociologists
In honor of the 158th birthday of Emile Durkheim, we take a look at why his work remains important to sociologists today.

Understanding the Gender Pay Gap and Why It Exists
The gender pay gap is real, and can be seen in hourly earnings, weekly earnings, annual income, and wealth.

How Opportunity Structures Affect Your Life
Opportunity structure refers to the way social organization and structure shape pathways to success. Click to find out how these affect your life.

The Sociological Imagination
An overview of C. Wright Mills's famous book The Sociological Imagination, and a nuanced discussion of the concept itself.

Science Says You Should Leave the Period Out of Text Messages
It may not be grammatically correct, but leaving a period off the final sentence of text messages seems to be socially correct. Or so science says.

Sociology Dictionary: U Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with U. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Units of Analysis
Within sociology units of analysis can take several forms, and social science research often involves more than one.

The Sociology of the Internet and Digital Sociology
The sociology of the internet emerged in the 1990s, and over the years morphed into the fascinating and growing subfield of digital sociology.

Data Sources For Sociological Research
A look at some of the options for accessing and analyzing sociological data from various data sources.

Understanding Political Process Theory
Political process theory is the core theory for understanding why a social movement can achieve change within a political system, or why it might fail.

Racial Projects and the Process of Racial Formation
Racial projects represent race in ideas, images, and policy. They take a position on the meaning of race in society, and shape the social structure.

Is it Possible to Be an Ethical Consumer? Part 1
A sociologist's take on what it means to be an ethical consumer today.

Is it Possible to Be an Ethical Consumer? Part 2
A sociologist's take on the limits and pitfalls of ethical consumption.

Deviance and Crime
Deviance and Crime. Sociology.

Subfields of Sociology
Sociology is a very broad and diverse field with many different topics and scopes. Learn more about the different areas of research and application within the field of sociology.

Key Concepts from Social Theorists
A definition and discussion of key theoretical concepts offered by both classical and contemporary social theorists.

Sociology Dictionary: D Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with D. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: W Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with W. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: X Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with X. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: Z Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with Z. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: A Index
Sociology terms that begin with the letter A

Sociology Dictionary: B Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with B. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: E Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with E. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: G Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with G. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: H Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with H. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: I Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with I. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: K Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with K. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: L Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with L. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: N Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with N. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: O Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with O. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: P Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with P. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: Q Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with Q. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: T Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with T. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: V Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with V. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Academic Resources
Academic Resources offers tools, advice, and links to information for sociology students. Find information on writing formats and styles, research scales, how to read professional journal articles, exam tips, and writing tips.

Careers in Sociology
Find information on many different careers in sociology as well as typical wages, working conditions, and job outlooks. Learn more about the diverse career options available to sociology majors. Check out job possibilities for those holding Bachelor's, Master's, or Doctoral degrees.

Profiles of Major Sociologists
Read biographies of major theorists within the field of sociology. Discover how these individuals contributed to the field of sociology and influenced how we think about social behavior.

Understanding the Cash Nexus in History and Today
Coined by Thomas Carlyle and popularized by Marx and Engels in the 19th century, the

What Pilot Studies Are and Why They Matter
A pilot study is a small-scale preliminary study that is helpful in the process of designing and executing a large-scale research project.

Sociological Definition of Degradation Ceremony
A degradation ceremony is a process of lowering a person's social status and removing certain rights when that person has violated norms, rules, or laws.

Definition of Idiographic and Nomothetic
Idiographic and nomothetic approaches to research are often framed as opposites, but within sociology they are often both used in complementary fashion.

What is an Age Structure?
The age structure of a population, illustrated as an age pyramid, is a tool for measuring changing birth and death rates over time, and their implications.

Sociology of Gender
Looking at gender sociologically reveals the social and cultural dimensions of something that is often defined as biologically fixed. Gender is not biologically fixed at all, but rather is culturally learned and is something that can and often does change over time.

What Is Disengagement Theory?
Disengagement theory, which has many critics, suggests that people slowly disengage from social life as they age and enter the elderly stage.

Capital - Definition in the Study of Sociology
The Marxist perspective uses the concept of capital to describe the...

Social Change - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Social change is any alteration in the cultural, structural, population...

Status Inconsistency - Definition in Sociology
Status inconsistency is a condition that occurs when individuals have some status characteristics that rank relatively high and some that rank relatively low.

Typology - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A typology is a set of categories used for classification...

Welfare State - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A welfare state is a social system in which the government assumes...

Xenophobia - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Xenophobia is a culturally based fear of outsiders. It has often been...

Stereotype - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A stereotype is a rigid, oversimplified, often exaggerated belief that is...

Structural Lag - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Structural lag is a condition that occurs when two related structural...

Subgroup - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A subgroup is a collection of people who identify themselves as members of...

Typification - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Typification is the process of relying on general knowledge as a way of...

Prestige - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Prestige, as defined by Max Weber, is honor or deference attached to a...

Ritual - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A ritual is a formalized mode of behavior in which the members of a...

Positivism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Positivism is a way of thinking developed by Auguste Comte and is based...

Reliability - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Reliability is the degree to which a measurement instrument gives the...

Resocialization - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Resocialization is the process by which existing social roles are...

Social Fact - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Social fact is a term created by Emile Durkheim to indicate social...

Self - Definition in the Study of Sociology
From a classical sociological perspective, the self is a relatively stable...

Patriarchy - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A patriarchy is a social system in which family systems or entire...

Medicalization - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Medicalization is a social process through which a human experience or...

Matriarchy - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A matriarchy is a social system organized around the principle of...

Matrifocality - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Matrifocality is a concept referring to households that consist of...

Labor Market - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A labor market is a set of social mechanisms though which labor is...

Feudalism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Feudalism is a political and economic system in which social relationships...

Communism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
As defined by Karl Marx, communism is a mode of production in which...

Paternalism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Paternalism is an authoritarian relationship in which the one in...

Oligarchy - Definition in the Study of Sociology
An oligarchy is a social system under the political control of a small...

Neutralization - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Neutralization is used as a coping technique to justify, deny, or...

Migration - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Migration is the physical movement of people within and between social...

Materialism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Materialism has two meanings in sociology. On the one hand it refers to a...

Legitimation - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Legitimation is a process through which a social system or some aspect of...

Kinship - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Kinship is the most universal and basic of all human relationships and...

Interest Group - Definition in the Study of Sociology
An interest group is an organization whose purpose is to influence the...

Groupthink - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Groupthink is a process though which the desire for consensus in...

Exploitation - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Exploitation occurs when one social group is able to take for itself what...

Ethnic Marker - Definition in the Study of Sociology
And ethnic marker is an identifiable cultural characteristic that identifies members of a particular ethnicity. This can include language, dress, rules of marriage, and customs.

Ethnicity - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Ethnicity is a concept referring to a shared culture and way of life...

Death Rate - Definition in the Study of Sociology
The death rate, also known as mortality rate, is most commonly measured by...

Custom - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A custom is a cultural idea that describes a regular, patterned way of...

Counterculture - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A counterculture is a subculture that rejects and opposes significant...

Correlation - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Correlation is a term that refers to the strength of a relationship between...

Chicago School - Definition in the Study of Sociology
The Chicago School is the name given to an approach to sociological work...

Coding - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Coding is the process of assigning numbers or categories to data or information...

Ageism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Ageism is prejudice based on differences in age. Unlike most other forms of...

Birth Rate - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Birth rate is the demographic measure of the rate at which children are...

Data Cleaning for Data Analysis in Sociology
Data cleaning is a crucial part of data analysis, particularly when you collect your own data.

Immersion - Definition and Examples in Sociology
The best way for a researcher to understand a group, a subculture, a setting, or a way of life is to immerse themselves into that world. Qualitative researchers often use immersion to gain the best understanding of their topic they can by essentially becoming a part of the group or topic of study.

Collectivity - Definition in the Study of Sociology
A collectivity is a group of people who think of themselves as belonging...

Cohesion - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Cohesion is the degree to which those in a social system identify with...

Authority - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Authority is a concept whose development is most often associated with...

Altruism - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Altruism is the tendency to see the needs of others as more important than...

Adaptation - Definition in the Study of Sociology
Adaptation refers to changes that occur in order to maintain various...

Account - Definition in the Study of Sociology
During a social interaction, an account is what people offer to...

Auguste Comte and His Role in the History of Sociology
Biography of Auguste Comte, a sociologist best known for coining the term 'sociology.' Comte is also known as the founder of positivism and for his emphasis on systematic observation and social order.

Emile Durkheim and His Role in the History of Sociology
Biography of Emile Durkheim, a founding figure in the field of sociology. Known as the

Difference Between Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
What's the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning? Here's a primer on each, and discussion of why most good research involves both.

Social Interaction Game Theory - An Overview
Game theory is a theory of social interaction, which attempts to explain the interaction people have with one another. As the name of the theory suggests, game theory sees human interaction as just that: a game.

Understanding Society Through Cultural Artifacts
Researchers use content analysis to learn about a society by analyzing cultural artifacts such as newspapers, magazines, television programs, or music.

Linear Regression & Multiple Linear Regression Analysis
Linear regression is a statistical technique that is used to learn more about the relationship between an independent (predictor) variable and one or more dependent (criterion) variables.

Demography - Statistical Study of Human Populations
Demography refers to a population's composition. Demographers are interested in how and why these demographics vary between societies.

Sociology: Achieved Status Versus Ascribed Status
Sociology.

Why Does Diversity in Hollywood Matter?
Sexism, racism, homophobia, and ageism in Hollywood get in the way of the fight for equality. It's time for this to change.

The Top 100 Films are Whiter Than the U.S.
Hollywood films vastly under-represent Hispanics and Latinos, and over-represent whites.

We Like Our Women and Girls Sexy
Women and girls of all ages are far more likely to be portrayed as sexy, naked, and attractive in Hollywood films than are men and boys.

It's a Man's World
The statistical evidence is in: men dominate lead roles in Hollywood films, taking 80 percent of them in 2014.

Gender Balance is Exceedingly Rare
Gender-balance in film casting is exceedingly rare in Hollywood.

Where Are All the Women and Girls?
In Hollywood's top 100 films, males outnumber females in speaking roles at a rate of 2.3 to 1.

Black Directors Seriously Improve Diversity of Films
Hollywood films by Black directors have far more diverse casts.

Just How Diverse Is Hollywood?
A new report from Annenberg's Media, Diversity, & Social Change Initiative shows just how bad Hollywood's diversity problem is.

Hollywood's Diversity Problem Behind the Lens
Hollywood's diversity problem behind the lens is even bigger than the one on-screen.

Where Are All the Women Directors?
How many women directors are there in Hollywood?

Diversity Behind the Lens Improves Diversity On-Screen
When women writers are involved in Hollywood films, more female characters are present on-screen.

Where Are the Queer People of Color?
Queer people of color do not exist according to Hollywood.

No Asians Allowed
Hollywood has a serious race problem. In 2014, just 17 out of the top 100 films featured a lead or co-lead from a racial or ethnic minority group.

Homophobic Hollywood
Queer characters are significantly under-represented in Hollywood films.

Emma Watson and bell hooks Discuss Feminism
Emma Watson and bell hooks had an inspiring conversation about their mutual admiration for each other and their shared commitment to feminism.

How Sociology Can Prepare You For Work in the Public Sector
Are you a sociology student interested in working in the public sector? There are many fields in which your skills and insights will be useful.

Gender Affects Racial Identity of Multiracial People
A 2016 Stanford study finds significant effects of gender, economic affluence, religion, and education on racial identity among biracial young adults.

In Celebration of Renowned Sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois
W.E.B. Du Bois was born in 1868, and was the first Black man to earn a Ph.D. at Harvard. Here's to his important and lasting contributions to sociology.

- By Category
An index of categories in the

An Overview of Social Exchange Theory
Social exchange theory interprets society as a series of behavioral choices and interactions that are based on estimates of rewards and punishments.

Controlled Experiments: Definition & Examples
A controlled experiment is a highly focused way of collecting data and is especially useful for determining patterns of cause and effect.

What is an Index of Qualitative Variation?
The Index of Qualitative Variation (IQV) is a way of measuring the distribution of nominal variables, like race and gender, among a population.

A Biography of C. Wright Mills
Biography of C. Wright Mills, a sociologist best known for his controversial critiques of both contemporary society and sociological practice.

Six Things You Need to Know About the 2016 Electorate
We've heard a lot about the candidates during the 2015-16 election cycle, but what about the electorate? Recent research reveals some striking facts.

Understanding Conflict Theory
Conflict theory states that conflicts breed in society when a powerful minority rules against the interest of a less powerful majority.

What Is a Stratified Sample?
A stratified sample is one that contains representative members from various subgroups, like race, class, gender, or education, among others.

What You Need to Know About Democratic Socialism
Socialism is not such a scary word when you know what democratic socialism really means--true democracy, equality, and freedom for all.

C. Wright Mills' Book "The Power Elite" All the More Relevant Today
As the privatization of everything unfolds and disaster capitalism reigns, C. Wright Mills' critique of the power elite has never been more relevant.

Understanding Structural Strain Theory
Structural strain theory frames deviant behavior as a result of disconnects between goals and the availability of legitimate means for attaining them.

Types of Norms: Folkways, Mores, Taboos, and Laws
Folkways, mores, taboos, and laws are forms of social norms that govern our beliefs, behavior, and interactions with others.

What Is Ethnography?
Ethnography is both a social science research method and a finished product. Find out about its history, conduct, and pros and cons here.

How to Have a Feminist Valentine's Day
Sick of the tired stereotypical gender and sexuality politics of Valentine's Day? Here's some advice on how to cast them aside and truly enjoy the holiday.

All About Environmental Sociology
Environmental sociology is a growing subfield of the discipline. Find out how sociologists think about the environment and our relationship to it here.

What You Need to Know About Toxic Communities
It's not just Flint. A big data study found that the worst pollution across the U.S. is primarily affecting poor and minority neighborhoods.

Confidence Intervals and Confidence Levels in Sociology
Confidence intervals and levels are commonly used in quantitative sociological research. Find out what they are and how to calculate them here.

The Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell


How to Design a Sociology Research Project
Looking to conduct sociological research? This brief guide to the steps of the research process will get you started.

Who Was Alexis de Tocqueville?
Though not a sociologist by training or trade, Alexis de Tocqueville is considered one of the founding thinkers of the discipline. Find out why here.

Who Was Georg Simmel?
Georg Simmel was a German sociologist who inspired many social theorists and helped law the foundations of the discipline.

Can Ethnic Studies Courses Save Potential Drop-Outs?
A 2016 Stanford study shows that ethnic studies courses improve academic performance for at-risk students, so why are so many against them?

Understanding Grounded Theory
Grounded theory is a social science research method that allows for a theory to emerge out of scientifically collected data.

What You Need to Know About Immigration and Crime
Are immigrants a dangerous threat to the U.S., as Donald Trump has suggested? Scientific research says absolutely not.

The Asch Conformity Experiments and Social Pressure
The Asch Conformity Experiments demonstrated the power of conformity in groups and showed that even simple objective facts cannot withstand the distorting pressure of group influence.

Pierre Bourdieu, a Biography in Brief
A brief biography and introduction to the key contributions of renowned late sociologist Pierre Bourdieu.

Everything You Need to Know About Race and Racism
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to race and racism.

Everything You Need to Know About Race and Racism
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to race and racism.

Everything You Need to Know About Race and Racism
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to race and racism.

Everything You Need to Know About Race and Racism
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to race and racism.

Everything You Need to Know About Race and Racism
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to race and racism.

Everything You Need to Know About Race and Racism
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to race and racism.

Dr. King's Unrealized Dream
Nearly 52 years after Dr. King's

Why UN Experts are Appalled by the Status of Women in the U.S.
A UN mission to the U.S. found the nation's women to be lacking in many internationally recognized rights.

What Can I Do With a Degree In Sociology?
What can you do with that degree in sociology? Quite a lot, it turns out.

How Sociology Can Help You Succeed in Business
Studying sociology can prepare for a variety of career paths. In this article we focus on how skills and insights learned apply to the world of business.

What is Path Analysis?
Path analysis is a form of statistical analysis used to evaluate causal relationships between a set of variables.

The Shrinking of the Middle Class--That's Proletarianization
Proletarianization refers to the growing size of the working class. Find out how the process played out historically, and how it continues today.

Understanding Emile Durkheim's "Collective Consciousness"
The collective consciousness is a set of beliefs, values, and attitudes shared by most people in society. Find out more and why it matters here.

Sociology
Sociology.

Sociology
Sociology.

8 Fascinating Facts About the U.S. Population in 2015
Highlights from Pew Research Center's year in population research, including facts about immigration, religion, to views on race, among others.

Sociology
Sociology.

Sociology
Sociology.

Sociology
Sociology.

Sociology
Sociology.

Sociology
Sociology.

What is Status Generalization?
Status generalization can lead to experiences of unjust privilege and discrimination. Find out what it is an how it affects your life here.

What Is an Industrial Society?
In industrial societies, factory production is the main source of economic activity, and the whole social structure is designed to support this.

How Reference Groups Shape Our Thoughts and Behavior
Everyday we look to reference groups to determine what is normal, right, and expected of us. Find out how they shape our thoughts and behavior.

What is Cultural Relativism?
What is cultural relativism? This article offers an introduction to and some history of the concept, as well as why it matters.

Christmas: What We Do, How We Spend, and Why it Matters
A look at the most popular Christmas traditions, how much we spend, and the environmental impact of gift-giving.

What is the Social Value of Christmas?
What makes Christmas so special for so many? A sociologist weighs in.

What is Participant Observation Research?
Participant observation is a common research method that sociologists use to collect data and study groups, social problems, and phenomena.

What Is A Cohort and Why Does it Matter for Research?
A cohort is a collection of people who share a particular experience or characteristic, and is an important research tool within the social sciences.

Will Your Marriage Last? New Research Sheds Light
There's a surprising connection between education level and marriage duration. Find out what it is and why it exists here.

Race: A Sociological Definition
The definition of race, from a sociological standpoint, is ever-evolving, always contested, and politically charged.

Black Friday: Where We Shopped, What We Bought, and What it All Means
How many people shopped in stores and online over the Black Friday extravaganza? How much did they spend, and what did they buy? Get the answers here.

All About the Sociology of Consumption
We consume things and services on a daily basis and rarely think much of it, but many sociologists are thinking about it all the time. Find out why.

All About the Sociology of Consumption
We consume things and services on a daily basis and rarely think much of it, but many sociologists are thinking about it all the time. Find out why.

What Thanksgiving Reveals About American Culture
According to sociologists, overeating on Thanksgiving is an act of patriotism. Say what?!

Everything You Need to Know About Anti-Vaxxers
Studies show that race and class privilege play significant roles in the practices of anti-vaxxer parents.

What Does "Intersectionality" Mean?
Intersectionality refers to a way of seeing people's experiences as shaped by their race, class, sex, gender, and sexuality all at the same time, among other things.

Conflict Theory Case Study: The Occupy Central Protests in Hong Kong
Conflict theory is helpful tool for understanding and analyzing the Occupy Central with Peace and Love protests that happened in Hong Kong in 2014.

9 Things You Can Do to Help End Racism
There are many things you can do to help end racism. This modest list targets racism at the individual, community, and national levels.

The Relationship Between Gender and Violence: A Case Study
A 16 year old girl is stabbed to death for denying a prom suitor. A sociologist reflects on masculinity, rejection, and violence.

Does Segregation Still Exist?
Though legal segregation is a thing of the past, practical segregation persists in the U.S., and in some forms is even more pronounced today than in the past.

How Sociologists Define Human Agency
Though society exerts a lot of force in shaping our lives, individuals express agency in a multitude of big and small ways, everyday.

Why Are Middle Age White People Dying at Greater Rates Than Others?
Middle age white Americans are dying at far greater rates than other groups, and are mostly dying of drug and alcohol related causes, and suicide. Why?

What's the Deal with White Privilege?
White privilege confers a host of advantages on white people in U.S. society and in many countries around the world. Learn what some of those are here.

What's the Difference Between Macro and Micro Sociology?
Macro- and microsociology have differences in scope, method, and levels of analysis, but both are valuable to the field of sociology, and even complementary.

What Are Applied and Clinical Sociology?
What are applied and clinical sociology? A sociologist explains these practical counterparts to the academic study of society.

All About the Ferguson Syllabus
The Ferguson Syllabus hashtag exploded on Twitter in the weeks following the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, MO. Here's sociology's version.

Rational Choice Theory Definition
Rational choice theory argues that social systems are organized in ways...

Taboo - Definition and Examples
A taboo is a norm forbidding certain behaviors as a form of ritual. Emile...

What Are the Four Levels of Measurement in Statistics?
Level of measurement refers to the way that a variable is measured. There are four main levels of measurement that variables can have: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio.

Patricia Hill Collins: A Brief Biography and Intellectual History
A brief two-part biography and intellectual history of black feminist sociologist Patricia Hill Collins.

Why Breastfeeding in Public is Taboo
Some say that taboos around breastfeeding in public exist because of the U.S.'s Puritanical roots, but I see darker and more dangerous reasons.

What is Discourse?
Discourse, the structure and content of our thought and communication, has powerful implications for people's rights, safety, and well-being.

11 Fascinating Facts About Halloween
Facts about Halloween spending and activities, from National Retail Federation, with some color sociological commentary about what it all means.

From Cocoa Liquor to Cakes and Butter
Sociology.

And Finally, Chocolate
Sociology.

From Cocoa Into Chocolate
Sociology.

Meet the Global Corporations That Buy the World's Cocoa
Sociology.

Where Does All That Cocoa Go?
Sociology.

Prepared for Sale
Sociology.

There's Child Labor & Slavery in Your Chocolate
Sociology.

Who Harvests All That Cocoa?
Sociology.

Chocolate Grows on Trees
How does chocolate get made, and who is involved in this global process? This slide show provides an overview, and a look at the hidden costs behind chocolate.

Michel Foucault: A Brief Biography and Intellectual History
Michel Foucault's contributions to how we understand knowledge and power are still widely relevant today. Get to know the man and his work.

Variance and Standard Deviation
Variance and standard deviation are two closely related measures of variation that you will hear a lot in studies, journals, or statistics class. They are two basic and fundamental concepts in statistics that must be understood in order to understand most other statistics concepts or procedures.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) - Definition
Analysis of Variance, or ANOVA for short, is a statistical test that looks for significant differences between means.

The New Rules of Smartphone Etiquette
A Pew Researcher Center survey found that clear rules have emerged around the etiquette of mobile device use in public and in groups.

What Are the Consequences of Defunding Planned Parenthood?
Republicans are moving to defund Planned Parenthood. Let's take a look at the gigantic economic costs of doing so, and the social costs too.

How Much is Apple's Brand Worth?
What's in a brand? A study of Apple's reveals what makes it so powerful economically and culturally.

What Are the Human Costs of iPhone?
Think Apple's labor problems are over? Think again. iPhone is dirty with exploitation and labor law violations.

Why We're Not Really Doing Anything About Climate Change
Until we take serious action as individuals and as communities, we are all climate change deniers.

The Sociological Perspective
Sociologists study connections between individual thought and behavior and the groups--small and large--that people belong to.

Why Do So Many Hate the Selfie Craze?
What's so bad about selfies? Find out, in this sociologically infused round-up of the critiques of the craze.

What You Need to Know About the Baltimore Uprising
A timeline of and context for events leading up to and throughout the Baltimore uprising of 2015 in response to the police killing of Freddie Gray.

Sociologists Take Historic Stand on Racism and Police Brutality
Over 1,800 sociologists called for immediate action and reform of racist police practices following the killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, M.O.

So You Want to Be a Sociology Major. Now What?
A brief introduction to what every sociology major should know about the field.

Why We Really Ignore Each Other in Public
Ignoring each other in public is actually a part of maintaining a polite and safe society--Erving Goffman called this

Study Finds Racial and Gender Bias Among Professors
A 2014 study found that American professors are less likely to respond to emails from women and racial minorities.

What is Globalization?
Sociologists define globalization as an unfolding process that plays out in integrated social, economic, political, and cultural ways.

Considering Sociology? Here's What You Need to Know
Considering a major in sociology? These resources will help you figure out if the field is right for you.

Sociology of Consumption
The sociology of consumption is a subfield of sociology which places consumption at the center of research questions, studies, and social theory.

How Do I Know If a Sociology Major Is Right For Me?
Is a sociology major right for you? A sociologist reflects on what drew her into the field, and how you can tell if it's the right choice for you.

What Every Parent Needs to Know About Teen Friendships Today
Pew Research Center found that most teens are making friends online, and maintaining friendships via social media, gaming, and texting.

What's the Economic Impact of Airbnb?
Many view Airbnb as an innovative way to travel, build community, and make money, but research suggests that it's really building property magnates and economic inequality.

Southerners Give a Damn!


Weirdly, Where You Live Affects How You Swear
Linguist Jack Grieve has found via a study of Tweets that preference for swear words and frequency of their use varies by region across the U.S.

"Darn It!" The Polite Version of Swearing Peaks in Midwest
Linguist Jack Grieve found that the polite form of swearing (

"Gosh" Used More By Bible Belt Tweeters
Who says

People in the Northeast Love "Assh*le"
Linguist Jack Grieve found that the word

"Sh*t" is Most Popular Along Eastern Seaboard and Southern U.S.
Where in the U.S. is

Who Drops the F-Bomb? People On the Coasts
Linguist Jack Grieve did a study of Twitter and found that the word

In the U.S., Just a Few Hot Spots for the "Mother" of all Swears


"Bitch" Popular In Eastern and Southern States
Linguist Jack Grieve found that use of

Who Uses the Word "C@nt"?
Is

"Faggot" Most Commonly Used in the West
Linguist Jack Grieve found that use of the word

Sociologists Debunk Major Myth About Asian Americans
Sociologists Jennifer Lee and Min Zhou debunk this myth in their 2015 book, 'The Asian American Achievement Paradox'.

Child Immigrants are Very Much "Our Problem"
A sociologist explains what the child migrant crisis has to do with global capitalism and U.S. foreign policy.

White Male Shooters Are Symptoms of a Sick Society
White male shooters are the manifestation of a society sick with racism and patriarchy.

10 Things Sociologists Hate About Global Capitalism
Through research, sociologists have found that global capitalism does far more harm than good. Here are ten key critiques of the system.

What Would You Say if Someone Asked You to Define Capitalism?
Capitalism is a widely used yet not often defined term. What does it actually mean? A sociologist provides a brief discussion.

Why Are the Rich So Much Richer Than the Rest?
The wealth gap between those in the upper-income bracket and the rest is the largest in 30 years. The Great Recession played a major role in widening it.