Sociology Sitemap - Page 2 2016-09-26

How Global Capitalism Works
Sociologists have identified five characteristics that make today's capitalism

Why Does Crime Spike in Summer?
It's a known fact that crime rates spike in the summer, but this is not just the result of more people being outside and away from their homes.

Did the Ferguson Protests Work?
Since the Ferguson uprising changes are taking place at the national, state, and community levels that promise to have real and lasting impact.

The Sociologist's Guide to Pop Culture
How do sociologists study and talk about pop culture? This series of articles covers everything from selfies, to the Kardashians, to Christmas.

The Sociologist's Guide to Pop Culture
How do sociologists study and talk about pop culture? This series of articles covers everything from selfies, to the Kardashians, to Christmas.

How To Know If Someone Is Flirting On Facebook
Wondering if that love interest posting on your Facebook timeline is really into you? Good news: data shows that you are being digitally courted.

How Much Money Do Sociology Professors Make?
A report by American Sociological Association shows tenured and tenure-track faculty earn above the U.S. median income, but adjuncts earn far less.

Which Country Has the Loosest Morals?
Though there is a general global consensus on what is right and wrong, you might be surprised by which country has the most relaxed moral attitudes.

Americans Own Nearly Half the Guns in the World. Wait, What?!
The U.S. is best globally at gun ownership and best among developed nations at gun-related homicides. Congratulations?

Why Feminists Are Fighting About Rihanna's New Video
Is Rihanna's video for

Dominant Ideology Thesis
The dominant ideology is the collection of values, attitudes, and beliefs of a given society.

Is National Public Radio Really Public?
Is NPR living up to its mission of public service? A new study by Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting suggests it may be failing.

4 Tools to Help Sociology Students to Find Scholarships
This roundup shows sociology students how they can find scholarships that will relieve the burden of financing a college education.

The Social Theory of Decentering
Decentering is a way of understanding societies and individual psychology from multiple viewpoints.

What Is Acculturation and How Is it Studied?
Acculturation is a term used in sociology to describe the process by which members of one cultural group adopt beliefs and behaviors of another group.

ASA Style of Formatting References
These examples show how to use American Sociological Association, or ASA, style to format references, including books and journal articles.

4 Reasons for Deindustrialization
Do you know what is deindustrialization? Is it always negative? Here are 4 reasons for deindustrialization.

What Is an Agrarian Society?
Agrarian societies base their economies on raising crops and farming.

What Do Those Facebook Pride Photos Really Mean?
What does it mean that 26 million people have adopted the

Who Really Owns Guns?
Data from the Pew Research Center both debunks and confirms stereotypes, and raises troubling questions about the cultural underpinnings of gun ownership.

What is White Supremacy?
Far from a thing of the past or the strict purview of Neo-Nazi and white power groups, white supremacy is part of the very fabric of U.S. society.

What You Need to Know About Sociology's Big Murder Conspiracy Scandal
Alice Goffman's

Sociologist Erving Goffman - A Brief Biography
Biography of Erving Goffman, a sociologist known for his role in shaping the symbolic interaction perspective as well as developing the dramaturgical perspective.

Profiles Of Famous Sociologists, Past and Present
Learn more about sociologists by browsing through this list of some of the most famous thinkers in sociology history.

Profiles Of Famous Sociologists, Past and Present
Learn more about sociologists by browsing through this list of some of the most famous thinkers in sociology history.

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism' is a book written by sociologist and economist Max Weber in 1904-1905. It is a discussion of Weber’s various religious ideas and economics in which he argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism. It is often considered a founding text in economic sociology and sociology in general.

Ideal Type - Definition in Sociology
The ideal type is an abstract model created by Max Weber

You'd Never Guess That This Makes People Cheat on Their Partners
Why do people cheat? A new study by sociologist Christin L. Munch has found a surprising new reason.

What You Need to Know About Economic Inequality
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to economic inequality.

What You Need to Know About Economic Inequality
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to economic inequality.

Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools

It's a Boy!
The socially constructed nature of gender is a great case for applying symbolic interaction theory to everyday life.

What is Symbolic Interaction Theory?
What is symbolic interaction theory? This post provides a brief overview, and some examples of how you can use it to analyze the world around you.

"Where Are You From?"

Herbert Blumer Coined the Term and Defined It
A brief overview of Herbert Blumer's theory of symbolic interactionism.

It Started with Max Weber
Did you know that Max Weber laid the initial foundation for symbolic interaction theory?

George Herbert Mead Developed It
Early American sociologist George Herbert Mead's pragmatic theory is understood as the framework and inspiration for symbolic interactionism.

Symbolic Interaction Theory Is...
A brief overview of symbolic interactionism and what

Your Social Science Hub for Gender and Sexuality
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to gender and sexuality.

Your Social Science Hub for Gender and Sexuality
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to gender and sexuality.

Your Social Science Hub for Gender and Sexuality
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to gender and sexuality.

Your Social Science Hub for Gender and Sexuality
A collection of articles on sociological research studies, theories, and current events pertaining to gender and sexuality.

What is a Norm?
A visual explanation of how sociologists define

We Learn Norms Through Socialization
We first learn norms from our family members, who teach us everything from how to eat, dress, care for our health and hygiene, and how to interact with others.

Learning Norms Takes Place in School, Too
Students learn norms like respect for authority and collaboration in school, but also many others, like those pertaining to sexuality and gender.

But, There Are Downsides to Norms
Children are taught social norms that differ by gender from a young age, and these have detrimental effects on individual lives and society as a whole.

Social Norms Can Lead to Widespread Social Problems
The perception of whites as

How Are Norms Enforced?
Social norms are formally enforced by the police and other authority figures who dole out punishments, but also simply by the expectations of others.

Social Norms Can Lead to Dangerous Behavior
While social norms allow for order and stability in society, they can also cultivate dangerous behavior.

Understanding Weber's "Iron Cage"
Max Weber's concept of the iron cage is even more relevant today than when he first wrote about it in 1905. Find out what it is, and why it matters.

What is a Norm? Why Does it Matter?
Sociologists believe norms to be cultural products that shape our behavior. They are a part of maintaining social order, which has both good and bad implications.

Do Right-to-Carry Laws Make Us Safer?
Two recent studies out of leading universities debunk the NRA's position that more guns lead to a safer society.

Does Experiencing Racism Affect Your Health?
A new study found that regional Google searches for the N-word correlate to an increased risk of death by heart disease, stroke, and cancer among the Black population.

Karl Marx's Greatest Hits
Karl Marx, one of the founding thinkers of sociology, produced a huge volume of written work. Get to know the conceptual highlights and why they remain important.

What is Social Class, and Why Does it Matter?
What's the difference between economic class and social class? Find out how sociologists define these, and why they believe both matter.

What is Social Stratification?
What is social stratification, and how do race, class, and gender affect it? This slide show brings the concept to life with compelling visualizations.

The Effect of Race on Income in the U.S.
What is the impact of race on income in the U.S.? Census data show very clear racial disparities in median household earnings.

Effect of Race on Wealth in the U.S.
What is the effect of race on wealth in the U.S.? Data show systemic racism channels wealth to whites and away from Blacks and Latinos.

Wealth Distribution in the U.S.
A visual illustration of wealth distribution, also known as wealth inequality, in the United States.

Income Distribution in the U.S.

How Many Americans Are in Poverty? Who Are They?
How many people in the U.S. are in poverty, and who are they? Visual data from the U.S. Census provides the answers.

Effect of Gender on Wages in the U.S.
How does gender affect earnings? Data show a declining but persistent gap between men and women.

Impact of Education on Wealth
How does educational attainment affect wealth? Find out how those who have a college degree or higher fare against others.

Impact of Education on Income
How does education affect income in the U.S.? Data from Pew Research Center show that the effect is strong, and growing.

Distribution of Education in the U.S.
How many people in the U.S. have a college degree? Data from Pew Research Center show that educational attainment, at all levels, is on the upswing.

Who Goes to College in the U.S.?
Does race affect whether one completes a college degree? Data from Pew Research Center seem to suggest it does, with Asians far outpacing all others.

What is Social Stratification, and Why Does it Matter?
Society is organized into a hierarchy shaped by the intersecting forces of education, race, gender, and economic class, among other things.

How Fearing Plane Crashes Obscures Real Dangers
The risk of dying in a plane crash is 1 in 4.7 million, so why does it trouble us so greatly, and what are the costs of fearing the wrong things?

Are Economists Bad for Society?
When those directing economic policy are trained to be selfish, greedy, and downright Machiavellian, we've got a serious problem as a society.

Studies Find Gender Pay Gap in Nursing and Children's Chores
A study has found that men earn far more in the women-dominated field of nursing, and others show that boys are paid more for doing less chores than girls.

What's Wrong with Starbucks's "Race Together" Campaign
Besides being logistically stupid, Starbucks's

Are Women More Productive Than Men in the Senate?
An analysis of seven years' worth of legislative data found that women are far more effective legislators than men in the Senate. Imagine what we could do with parity!

What You Need to Know About the DOJ Report on Ferguson
The DOJ found systemic racism and violations of several constitutional rights and federal law in Ferguson's police department and municipal court.

The Big Sexist Problem With Student Evaluations
Data from shows students more often rate men as intelligent, and penalize women for not providing emotional labor.

Does Race Affect How You Use Social Media?
A study by Pew Research Center found that while Facebook is universally popular, use of other social media sites is strongly shaped by race.

What You Need to Know About the New United States
With major shifts in the age and racial make-up of our population underway, what will the US look like in 50 years?

Why Are US Millennials More Optimistic Than Those in Europe?
Millennials in the US and Europe have differing views of the power of hard work and education to shape their future, the implications of which may be greater than you think.

Why So Much Fuss About Kylie Jenner and Tyga?
Is the tabloid media storm around Kylie Jenner and rapper Tyga just about age? A sociologist suspects that racial stereotypes are part of it.

Black Scholars & Thinkers Who Made Their Mark On Sociology, Part 1
Get to know these black scholars and thinkers who made significant contributions to the field of sociology during the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Black Scholars & Thinkers Who Left Their Mark on Sociology, Part 2
Get to know these black scholars and thinkers who made significant contributions to the field of sociology during the 20th century.

Culture Jamming for Social Change

Do You Think Like a Scientist?
Scientists and US adults have divergent views on climate change, evolution, GMO foods, and vaccinations. To which camp do you belong?

Have Conservative Politics Pushed Americans Away From Organized Religion?
Contrary to popular belief, it is the politicization of religion, not secularization, that has fueled a sharp decrease in religious affiliation in the US.

Boys With Sisters are More Likely to Be Republicans. Wait, What?!
Parents beware: how you delegate household labor among your kids could affect the political trajectory of our nation.

How Does the Average American Spend Their Time?
The 2013 American Time Use survey reveals sharp gendered disparities in how we spend our time.

The Strange Gender Politics of Scarves
A sociologist reflects on why some ask this, and why there is a campaign to make scarves

Which Colleges Are Best For a Major in Sociology?
If you are thinking about applying to college and interested in the field of sociology, this article is a must-read.

The Life and Work of Howard S. Becker
An overview of the important sociological contributions of Howard S. Becker, noted jazz pianist and advocate for good writing.

Who Is in the 114th Congress?
A stark look at the implications of a mostly white, male, and wealthy government.

New Year's Resolutions for a Better World
Flipping the script on New Year's resolutions, a sociologist recommends focusing on the common good and positive social change rather than self-improvement.

Should Advertising Images of People Be Regulated?
New bill proposes FTC prevent advertisers from using doctored images of bodies and faces, with much sociological, psychological, and medical research in support.


Does Race Affect Discipline in Schools?
A September 2014 report from NAACP and National Women's Law Center finds shockingly disparate rates of punishment experienced by black and white girls in schools.

Ethical Considerations In Sociological Research
The American Sociological Association's Code of Ethics sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists' professional responsibilities and conduct. Here is an overview of the five principles included in the Code of Ethics.

Ethnomethodology to Understand Social Order
Ethnomethodology is a theoretical approach in sociology based on the belief that you can discover the normal social order of a society by disrupting it. Ethnomethodologists deliberately disrupt social norms to see how people respond and how they try to restore social order.

Understanding Feminist Sociology
Feminist theory provides one of the major contemporary approaches to sociology with its critical interrogation of power, domination, and inequality.

Sociology of Race and Ethnicity
Race and ethnicity are important concepts in the field of sociology and are ones that are studied a great deal. Race plays a large role in everyday human interactions and sociologists want to study how, why, and what the outcomes are of these interactions.

Sociology of Education
Education is a social institution that sociologists are very interested in studying. This includes teaching formal knowledge such as reading, writing, and arithmetic, as well as teaching other things such as morals, values, and ethics. Sociologists want to know how this form of socialization affects and is affected by other social structures, experiences, and outcomes.

Secondary Data Analysis
Secondary data analysis involves the use of data that was collected by someone else for some other purpose. In this case, the researcher poses questions that are addressed through the analysis of a data set that they were not involved in collecting.

The Purposes of Research
Social research serves many purposes. Three of the most common and useful purposes, however, are exploration, description, and explanation. Many studies can and often do have more than one of these purposes, however each have different implications for other aspects of research design.

History of Sociology
Learn about the history of sociology, how it came to be an academic discipline, and its evolution over the past century.

The McDonaldization of Society
In 'The McDonaldization of Society,' author George Ritzer takes the central elements of Max Weber’s work and expands and updates them, producing an analysis of the impact of structural change on human interaction and identity.

The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life is a book that was published in 1959, written by sociologist Erving Goffman. In it, he uses the imagery of theater in order to portray the importance of human and social action and interaction. He refers to this as the dramaturgical model of social life.

Types of Scales
A scale is a type of composite measure that is composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. There are several different types of scales. In this article, we’ll look at four commonly used scales in social science research and how they are constructed.

Systematic Sample - Overview and Example
In a systematic sample, the elements of the population are put into a list and then every k-th element in the list is chosen (systematically) for inclusion in the sample.

Biological explanations of deviant behavior
There are many different theories on what causes a person to perform deviant behavior. Here you will find some of the major biological explanations for deviance and crime.

Psychological Explanations Of Deviant Behavior
There are many different theories on what causes a person to perform deviant behavior. Here you will find some of the major psychological explanations for deviant behavior.

Qualitative Research
Qualitative research, also called field research, typically involves fieldwork in which the researcher observes and records behavior and events in their natural setting. The researcher physically goes to the people, setting, or site in order to observe the subject as it normally and naturally occurs or behaves.

Sociology Of Religion
In one form or another, religion is found in all known human societies. Even the earliest societies on record show clear traces of religious symbols and ceremonies. Sociologists study religion as both a belief system and a social institution, examining things such as how religious institutions are organized and what influence religion has on other social institutions.

Herbert Spencer Biography
Biography of Herbert Spencer, a British sociologist who was one of the first to think of social life in terms of social systems. He saw societies as organisms that progressed through a process of evolution similar to that experienced by living species. Spencer also played an important role in the development of the functionalist perspective.

Snowball Sample - Overview & Examples
A snowball sample is a non-probability sampling technique that is appropriate to use in research when the members of a population are difficult to locate. Read more about snowball sampling and see an example.

The Division of Labor in Society
The Division of Labor in Society is a book written, originally in French, by Emile Durkheim in 1893. It was Durkheim’s first major published work and the one in which he introduced the concept of anomie, or the breakdown of the influence of social norms on individuals within a society.

Role Conflict - Definition and Example
Role conflict occurs when people are confronted with incompatible role...

Cluster Sample - Conducting Sociology Research
Cluster sampling may be used when it is either impossible or impractical to compile an exhaustive list of the elements that make up the target population. Read about the different types of cluster samples how they are drawn.

Robert K. Merton (1910-2003) - Sociologist Profile
Biography of Robert K. Merton, a sociologist best known for his theories of deviance. Merton also developed the concepts of

Random Sample (Simple Sampling Method)
The simple random sample is the basic sampling method assumed in statistical methods and computations. Read about the different kinds of random samples and examples of each, including how to use a random number table.

Demographic Transition Definition in Sociology
Demographic transition is a model used to represent the transition from...

Presenting Data in Graphic Form (Charts, Graphs, Maps)
Graphs tell a story with visuals rather than in words or numbers and can help readers understand the substance of the findings rather than the technical details behind the numbers. Learn about the different types of graphs used in social science research.

Charles Horton Cooley Sociologist Profile
Biography of Charles Horton Cooley, a sociologist known for his idea of 'The Looking Glass Self' as well as for developing the concepts of primary and secondary relationships.

Sociology Of Health And Illness
Sociologists who study health and illness focus on the social effects of, and societal attitudes towards, illnesses, diseases, disabilities, and the aging process. This is not to be confused with medical sociology, which focuses on medical institutions such as hospitals, clinics, and physician offices as well as the interactions among physicians.

Sociology of Sports - Relationship With Society
Sociology of sports, also referred to as sports sociology, is the study of the relationship between sports and society. This is a brief overview of some of the topics examined under the sociology of sports.

Measures of Central Tendency (Mean, Median, and Mode)
Measures of central tendency are numbers that describe what is average or typical of the distribution of data. There are three main measures of central tendency: mean, median, and mode.

Definition of Indexes and Scales for Social Sciences
If you are conducting a social science research project, chances are good that you will encounter indexes and scales. While these two types of measures do have some characteristics in common, they are two different concepts and have several distinguishing features.

How To Get Started On A Literature Review
Starting the process of conducting and writing a literature can be overwhelming. Here I will provide you with a few tips on how to get started that will hopefully make the process a little less daunting.

Constructing a Questionnaire - Formatting
Questionnaires are used a lot in social science research and knowing how to construct a good questionnaire can be an important and practical skill to have. Here you will find tips on good questionnaire formatting, item ordering, questionnaire instructions, question wording, and more.

The Most Important Words in Emma Watson's Speech Were About Masculinity
What Emma Watson said about masculinity at the UN eloquently synthesized years of sociological research on gender and violence.

List Of Major Sociological Studies And Publications
Discover some of the major sociological works that helped define and shape the field of sociology.

List Of Major Sociological Studies And Publications
Discover some of the major sociological works that helped define and shape the field of sociology.

Sociologist Talcott Parsons Biography
Biography of Talcott Parsons, a sociologist best known for laying the foundation for what would become the modern functionalist perspective. He is regarded by many as the twentieth century's most influential American sociologist.

Units of Analysis - Sociology
One important idea in a research project is the unit of analysis. The unit of analysis is the major entity that you are analyzing in your study. It is the ‘what’ or ‘who’ that is being studied. This article explores the common units of analysis used in social science research.

Sociolinguistics - Language, Dialects and Society
Sociolinguistics is the study of the connection between language and society and the way people use language in different social situations. It asks the question,

Lambda and Gamma - Sociology Glossary
Lambda and gamma are two measures of association that are commonly used in social science statistics and research. Lambda is used for nominal variables while gamma is used for ordinal variables.

Anthony Giddens - Biography of British Sociologist
Biography of Anthony Giddens, a British sociologist best known for his theory of structuration, his holistic view of modern societies, and the development of his political philosophy called the Third Way. Giddens is a prominent contributor to the field of sociology with 34 published books in at least 29 languages.

Software Programs for Quantitative Data
There are many different software programs designed for use with quantitative data. This article will take a look at the programs that are most commonly used among social science researchers.

Constructing a Deductive Theory
Deductive theory construction takes place during deductive reasoning in the hypothesis-testing phase of research. This article provides an overview on the steps involved in constructing a deductive theory.

Sociology of Work and Industry
The study of work, industry, and economic institutions is a major part of sociology because the economy influences all other parts of society and therefore social reproduction in general.

Popular Culture Definition
Popular culture is the accumulated store of cultural products

Social Control - Definition in Sociology
Social control is a concept that refers to the ways in which people’s...

Cultural Lag - Definition and Example
Cultural lag is a term to describe what happens in a social system when...

Who Was Hurt the Most by the Great Recession?
Pew Research Center finds that loss of wealth during the Great Recession and the rejuvenation of it during the recovery were not experienced equally. The key factor? Race.

Where to Find Full-Text Sociology Journals Online
An overview of sociology journals that offer access to a selection of full-text articles online.

Overview of The Culture of Fear by Barry Glassner
The Culture of Fear was written in 1999 by Barry Glassner, a sociology professor at the University of Southern California. The book is all about why America is a country that is engrossed with fear. Glassner examines and exposes the people and organizations that manipulate Americans’ perceptions and profit from the resulting anxiety.

Relationship Between Deviance and Mental Illness
Deviance and mental illness often go hand-in-hand. While not all deviants are considered mentally ill, almost all mentally ill persons are considered deviant

The History of Sexuality by Michel Foucault - Overview
The History of Sexuality is a three-volume series of books written between 1976 and 1984 by French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault. His main goal in the books is to disprove the idea that Western society had repressed sexuality since the 17th century and that sexuality had been something that society did not talk about.

Introduction to Statistics
An introduction to statistics for sociology.

Dependency Theory in Sociology - Definition
Dependency theory is used to explain the failure of nonindustrialized countries...

Formal Organization - Sociology Definiton
A formal organization is a social system organized around specific goals...

Hypothesis - Definition
A hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between variables. Also defined: null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis.

Meritocracy - Definition
A meritocracy is a social system in which people’s success in life depends...

Collective Behavior - Definition of Term
Collective behavior is a type of social behavior that occurs in crowds or...

Power Definitions and Examples in Sociology
Power is a key sociological concept with several different meanings...

What Are the Best Graduate Schools for Sociology?
Learn about the top graduate programs in sociology, and figure out which one is right for you.

Exchange Theory - Sociology Definition
Exchange theory includes two approaches to social interaction and relationships.

'Democracy in America' - an Overview of the Book
'Democracy in America,' written by Alexis de Tocqueville is considered one of the most comprehensive and insightful books ever written about the U.S. The book deals with issues such as religion, the press, money, class structure, racism, the role of government, and the judicial system – issues that are just as relevant today as they were then.

Control Variable - Definition in Sociology
A control variable is a variable that is held constant in a research...

Resource Mobilization Theory - Sociology
Resource mobilization theory is used in the study of social movements...

Ritualism Definition - Ritualism Robert Merton Theory
Ritualism is a concept discussed by Robert Merton in his Theory...

Anomie - Sociology Glossary Definition
Anomie is a social condition in which there is a lack of cohesion and...

Capitalism - Sociology Glossary Definition
Capitalism is an economic system that emerged in Europe during the...

Moral Panic - Sociology Glossary Definition
Moral panic is an extreme social response to the belief that the...

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft - Relationships in Societies
Gemeinschaft, or community, relations are based on a relatively...

Secularization - Definition With Examples
Definition of the sociological term

Constructing an Inductive Theory - Sociology
Inductive theory construction takes place during inductive research in which the researcher first observes aspects of social life and then seeks to discover patterns that may point to relatively universal principles.

Base and Superstructure - Definitions and Comparison
Base and superstructure are two concepts in Karl Marx’s view of human society.

A Sociological Definition of Class Conflict and Struggle
According to Karl Marx, class conflict and struggle occur because of the economic organization of most societies.

Critical Theory
Critical theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and...

Frustration-Aggression Theory - Glossary Definition
The frustration-aggression theory argues that social movements occur...

Hypothetico-Deductive Method - Sociology Definition
The hypothetico-deductive method is an approach to research that begins with a theory about how things work and derives testable hypotheses from it.

Validity - Sociological Definition and Example
Validity is the degree to which a measurement instrument, such as a survey question, measures what we in fact think it measures.

Xenocentrism - Sociology Glossary Definition
Xenocentrism is a culturally based tendency to value other cultures more...

Sociology Definition of the Week: Sick Role

Case Study - Sociology Definition
A case study is a research method that relies on a single case rather than a population or sample.

Ethnomethodology - Definition in Sociology
Ethnomethodology is the study of how people use social interaction to...

Intervening Variable Definition
In statistics, an intervening variable is one that occurs between the independent and dependent variables.

Melting Pot - Definition in Sociology
Melting pot is a concept referring to a heterogeneous society becoming...

White-Collar Crime - Glossary Definition
White-collar crime is a criminal act that arises from opportunities created...

Marxist Sociology
Marxist sociology blends Marxism and sociology, focusing on Karl Marx’s...

What Is a Sampling Error? - Sociology Definition
The definition of

Social Oppression - Sociology Glossary Definition
Social oppression is a concept that describes a relationship of dominance...

Why We Selfie
The ubiquitous selfie. Simply an act of vanity and narcissism? The Sociology Expert suggests some additional forces may be at play.

The Selfie Debates, Part II
Think the selfie is vain, narcissistic, or self-exploitation? The reasons why some sociologists defend it may surprise you.

5 Superstar Women Sociologists You Should Know
Get to know some of sociology's leading women, and why their research is important and celebrated.

The Who, What and Why of the Frankfurt School
A brief introduction to the Frankfurt School and its key thinkers, including Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Herbert Marcuse.

Jürgen Habermas
Biography of Jurgen Habermas, a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism. He is known for his theory of rationality and for his concept of modernity.

Which Country Has the Smallest Gender Gap?
The latest report from World Economic Forum shows overall gains in closing the global gender gap, with Nordic countries leading the pack.

Sociology Definition of the Week: Opportunity Structure

The Social Significance of "White"
What does it mean to be

The Dark History of Sociology's Chicago School
Learn how critiques of sociology by those who often found themselves the object of study have improved the discipline over time.

The Sociology Expert's Halloween Costume No-Nos
Do you fancy yourself against racism, gender discrimination, sexual exploitation, and economic inequality? Then avoid these Halloween costumes at all cost.

What is Cultural Appropriation?
A sociologist explains what cultural appropriation really is, what it isn't, and why it's a big deal to so many.

A Brief Guide to the Sociology of Globalization
A subfield of sociology that includes research focused on the economic, political, and cultural aspects and implications of a globally integrated society.

How to Use Sociology to Counter Claims of "Reverse Racism"
Claims of

Why the People's Climate March Matters
Over 400,000 participated in the People's Climate March in New York City, signaling an important convergence of economic, social, and environmental movements.

A Sociologist Explains Why Columbus Day Is Racist
Celebrating Columbus Day honors the racism, brutality, and economic exploitation of the colonial era, and dishonors all of those who suffer those same wrongs today.

The "Ray Rice Makeup Tutorial" and the Political Power of Satire
Social change only happens when people believe that it must. Satire like MacKay's can serve to shift popular consciousness on troubling problems.

"Hood Disease" is a Racist Myth, But PTSD Among Inner City Youth is Real
Inner city youth suffer rates of PTSD at greater rates than do combat veterans, but

Let's Talk About the Orgasm Gap, Baby
In heterosexual encounters, men achieve orgasm three times as frequently as women. Are women naturally less sexual?

You've Come a Long Way, Baby: Capitalism Through the Years
Capitalism has changed greatly since it was first introduced in the 14th century, and society too has changed along with it. A sociologists provides a snapshot of the first two epochs.

Five-O App Will Document, and Maybe Change, Police Behavior
The Five-O app has the potential to help social scientists and governments address the national crises of police racism and brutality.

A Brief Guide to the Sociology of Knowledge
The sociology of knowledge is a subfield devoted to researching and theorizing the socially situated processes of knowledge formation and knowing.

Sociology Dictionary: Y Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with Y. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Sociology Dictionary: J Index
These are brief definitions of sociology terms beginning with J. Click on the term for a more detailed definition.

Key Sociological Terms
Some of the key terms and ideas that are fundamental to the field of sociology.

Sociology Terms - Statistical Sociology Glossary
Some of the major statistical terms used in sociology journals and texts.

Sociology Terms - Statistical Sociology Glossary
Some of the major statistical terms used in sociology journals and texts.

Sociology Terms - Statistical Sociology Glossary
Some of the major statistical terms used in sociology journals and texts.

Sociology Terms - Statistical Sociology Glossary
Some of the major statistical terms used in sociology journals and texts.

Dichotomous Variable
A dichotomous variable is a variable that has only two categories.

A role is a set of ideas and expected behaviors associated with a social...

A subculture is a group of people with a culture that differentiates them...

Suppressor Variable
In statistics, a suppressor variable is a variable that, when controlled...

Unobtrusive Measure - Definition and Examples
In research, an unobtrusive measure is a method of making observations...

Backstage and Frontstage - Definitions in Sociology
In Erving Goffman’s Dramaturgical Perspective on Social Interaction, frontstage...

A boundary is a point or limit that distinguishes one social system...

Longitudinal Study
A longitudinal study follows the same sample over time and makes...

Atomism And Holism
Atomism and holism are two concepts that represent two very different views of...

Ten Things I Hate About Global Capitalism
Through research, sociologists have found that global capitalism does far more harm than good. Here are ten key critiques of the system.

The Globalization of Capitalism
The globalization of capitalism was led by political and economic leaders of Western nations from the mid-20th century on. A sociologist reviews key events in this process.

New Deal Capitalism and the Road to Globalization
For much of the 20th century, state intervention in capitalist economies was the norm. Learn about what made this third epoch of capitalism unique.

Marriage (Sociological Definition)
Marriage is a socially supported union involving two or more individuals in...

Social attribution is a process though which people try to explain how...

What Is Language (As Used in Sociology)?
Language is the collection of words and the rules of govern syntax and...

Prejudice - Definition
Prejudice is a positive or negative cultural attitude directed toward...

Life Course - Sociology Glossary Definition
The life course is a culturally defined sequence of age categories that...

Scapegoat (Definition and Examples)
A scapegoat is person or group that is forced to take the blame for happenings that are not their fault.

Logistic Regression
Logistic regression is a common statistical technique used in sociological studies. It provides a method for modeling a binary response variable, which takes values 0 and 1.

Measure of Association - Sociology Definition
A measure of association is a statistical quantity used to indicate the strength of the relationship between two variables.

Other - The Concept in Sociology
In classical sociology, other is a concept in the study of social...

Direct Observation
There are many different kinds of field research in which researchers can take any number of roles. Being a complete observer means studying a social process without becoming a part of it in any way. It is possible that, because of the researcher’s low profile, the subjects of the study might not even realize that they are being studied.

Hunter-Gather Society
The hunter-gather society is a social system having the simplest mode...

Mass Society
Mass society is a social system characterized by mindless uniformity and...

Pastoral Society
A pastoral society is a social system in which the breeding and herding...

What Is a Sect? - Definition and Examples
A sect is a type of religious group that is distinguished by having...

Cluster Analysis
Researchers are often looking for ways to organize observed data into meaningful structures or classifications. Cluster analysis is one way to do that.

Deviance Amplification
Deviance amplification is a process, often performed by the mass media, in...

Horticultural Society
A horticultural society is a social system based on horticulture...

Oversampling is a research practice in which members of a population...

Applied Sociology
Applied sociology is one of the more than a dozen fields within...

Differential Association
Differential association is the process of learning some types of...

Principal Components and Factor Analysis
Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) are statistical techniques used for data reduction or structure detection.

Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism is the application of Darwinian thought to society in...

Voluntary Association
A voluntary association is a group or organization that people may join or...

What Is an Ideology?
An ideology is a set of cultural beliefs, values, and attitudes that...

Continuous Variable
A continuous variable is a variable that can, within a given range...

Sampling Weight
A sampling weight is a statistical correction factor that compensates for...

Composite Measure
A composite measure is a measuring device that combines...

Power Structure
A power structure is the distribution of power among individuals, or...

Comparative Perspective
The comparative perspective is based on the idea that a society or social...

Internalization is a process through which we come to identify parts of...

Victimless Crime
A victimless crime is an offense that lacks an identifiable victim who is...

Dependency Ratio
The dependency ratio is the number of young and elderly people in...

Career Spotlight: Probation Officer
A look at how a sociology degree can prepare you for a career as a probation officer.

A sample is a subset of a population selected to represent and draw...

Social Movement
A social movement is a sustained, organized collective effort that...

Frequency Distribution
A frequency distribution is a description of a variable providing a...

The Social Transformation of American Medicine
The Social Transformation of American Medicine is a book written in 1982 by Paul Starr about medicine and health care in the United States. Starr looks at the evolution and the culture of medicine from the colonial period (late 1700s) into the last quarter of the twentieth century.

Career Spotlight: Teaching
A look at teaching careers in sociology.

Military Sociology
Military sociology is the sociological study of the military. It examines issues such as military recruiting, race and gender representation in the military, combat, military families, military social organization, war and peace, and the military as welfare.

Communication Structure
A communication structure is the pattern of interaction that exists in...

Career Spotlight: Police Officer
A look at how a sociology degree can prepare you for a career as a police officer.

Cross-sectional Data
Cross-sectional data is information that is gathered at one point in...

Abstracted Empiricism
Abstracted empiricism is the practice of gathering sociological data for...

A cross-tabulation (or cross-tab for short) is a display of data that...

Primary And Secondary Relationships
Primary relationships are based on ties of affection and personal...

Patricia Hill Collins: A Bio & Intellectual History, Cont.
Part 2 of a biography and intellectual history of black feminist scholar Patricia Hill Collins.

What's the Difference Between Sex and Gender?
Sociologists have demonstrated through research that gender is a set of learned behaviors, and only exists if we accomplish it in interaction with others.

"Ethnocentrism" Definition - Index of Sociology Terms
Ethnocentrism can take on two different, but similar meanings. First...

Poverty - Sociology Glossary Definition
Poverty is a condition in which people lack what they need to live...

What Is Diffusion in Sociology?
Diffusion is a social process through which cultural knowledge, practices...

Harriet Martineau: A Brief Biography and Intellectual History
Wrongfully neglected today, Harriet Martineau was a prominent British writer and political activist, and one of the earliest Western sociologists and founders of the discipline.

Definition of a Post-Industrial Society
A postindustrial society is a social system in which most economic...

Social Distance Definition
Social distance is the degree to which people are willing to accept and associate with those having different social characteristics.

Antonio Gramsci: A Brief Biography and Discussion of Intellectual Contributions
A brief biography and overview of key intellectual contributions of Italian Marxist, Antonio Gramsci.

Class Consciousness & False Consciousness - Definition
According to Karl Marx, class conflict and struggle occur because of the...

Sanction Definition - Glossary of Sociology Terms
A sanction is a reward or punishment that a norm associates with a behavior...

Hidden Curriculum - Definition of Sociology Terms
Hidden curriculum is a concept that describes the often unarticulated...

Nature vs. Nurture - Definition
The nature/nurture debate is a longstanding controversy about the...

Master Status Definition (Sociology)
A master status is a social position that tends to be among the most...

Social Mobility - Definition
A person’s movement over time from one class to another. Social mobility can be up or down.

Total Institution Definition and Examples
A total institution, a concept developed by Erving Goffman, is an isolated...

What Is a Quota Sample? Explanation & Example
A quota sample a type of non-probability sample in which the researcher selects people according to some fixed quota. Learn more about quota samples and read an example.

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy (Definition and Examples)
A self-fulfilling prophecy, described by Robert Merton, is a cultural...

Dramaturgical Perspective Definition
The dramaturgical perspective was developed primarily by Erving Goffman

Interpretive Sociology Definition
Interpretive sociology is a theoretical perspective based on the idea...

Alienation Definition in Sociology and Marxism
Alienation is a concept that refers to both a psychological condition found...

Role Partner
A role partner is the occupant of a social status in relation to...

The Definition of Secondary Analysis
Secondary analysis is the practice of analyzing data that have already...

Convergence Theory - Definition in Sociology
Convergence theory has its roots in the functionalist perspective, which...

Definition of the Situation - Sociology Terms
The definition of the situation is what people use to know what is...

Spuriousness - Sociology Glossary Definition
In statistics, spuriousness occurs when two variables that are...

Software Programs for Analyzing Qualitative Data
There are many different software programs designed for use with qualitative data. This article will take a look at the programs that are most commonly used among social science researchers.

Mode of Production - Definition and Role in Marxism
The mode of production is a central concept in Marxism and is defined as the way a society is organized to produce goods and services.

Sociological definition of consumption and its social and cultural significance.

In statistics, a z-score indicates how many standard deviations an...

Zeitgeist is German and refers to the idea that each period in a society’s...

Zero-Sum Game
Zero-sum game is a term used to refer to a social situation in which one...

Society is a system of social interaction that includes both social...

Sociobiology is a field of scientific study which is based on the...

Socioeconomic Status
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a measure of class standing, typically...

Standard Error
A standard error is a statistical measure of the amount of variation in...

Standardization is a statistical technique that gives different units...

Status Attainment
Status attainment is based on the idea that inequality results primarily...

A status is a socially defined position in a group or society. Statuses...

A stigma is a negative social label that identifies people as deviant...

Stratified Sample
A stratified sample is a sampling design in which separate samples are...

Simple Random Sample
A simple random sample is a sample design in which selections are drawn...

Socialization is the process through which people learn the expectations...

Privatization is when governments turn over publicly owned industries...

Professionalization is the social process by which any trade or...

Qualitative Variable
A qualitative variable is one that cannot be described meaningfully in...

Recursive Relationship
In statistics, a recursive relationship between two variables is one in...

Religion is a social institution that is defined sociologically by...

Rite Of Passage
A rite of passage is a ritual used to mark and accomplish the transition...

Organized Crime
Organized crime is a social system distinguished by a complex...

Phenomenological Sociology
Phenomenological sociology was first developed by Alfred Schutz and...

Politics is the social process through which collective power is...

Positional Goods
Positional goods has two meanings. First, it can refer to goods that...

Private And Public Spheres
The private and public spheres are two gendered spheres that is has...

Hawthorne Effect
The Hawthorne effect occurs when subjects’ awareness of their...

Multivariate Analysis
Multivariate analysis is a statistical technique involving two or...

In sociology, norms are rules of conduct that specify appropriate...

Occupational Structure
The occupational structure of a society is the mix of different types...

Labor Process
Labor process is a Marxist term for production. It is used to draw...

Marriage Rules
Marriage rules are norms that regulate the choosing of spouses as well as...

The mean is a statistical measure of the average score in a distribution...

Methodology refers to the practices and techniques in research used to...

Grounded Theory
A grounded theory is one that is based on observations of the real...

Indexicality is a concept referring to the fact that the meaning of...

Infant Mortality Rate
Infant mortality rate is a measure used by demographers that measures the...

An institution is a long-standing set of ideas about how to accomplish...

Effect (Statistical)
A statistical effect is a difference in value of one variable that is...

Egoism is the tendency of individuals to focus only on themselves in...

Embourgeoisement, studied mainly by Karl Marx, is the process through...

Emergent Norm Theory
Emergent norm theory is a theory used to explain collective behavior...

Emergent Properties
Emergent properties is a concept that was developed by Emile Durkheim...

Epidemiology is the study of how disease and illness and other...

Expectation States Theory
Expectation states theory is an approach to understanding how people...

Expressive Roles And Task Roles
Expressive roles and task roles describe two ways of participating in...

Factor Analysis
Factor analysis is a statistical technique used for replacing a large...

The family is a social institution that is defined by the social functions...

Feminization and Masculinization
Feminization is a process in which some aspect of social life changes toward...

Fetishism Of Commodities
Fetishism of commodities is a term coined by Karl Marx, who defined it...

Cultural Materialism
Cultural materialism is a theory that explains aspects of culture, such as...

Culture is the accumulated store of symbols, ideas, and materials products...

De-skilling is the process of using technology and the fragmentation of work...

Delinquent Drift
Delinquent drift is the process through which young people rationalize...

Deviance is any behavior that violates a social norm.

Division Of Labor
Division of labor refers to the range of tasks within a social system....

Dual Consciousness
Dual consciousness exists when people hold one set of beliefs based on...

Coefficient Of Alienation
In statistical analyses such as correlation, regression, or path analysis...

Collective Consumption
Collective consumption is a concept that refers to the many goods and...

Cultural Contact
Cultural contact is what occurs when two or more cultures come in contact...

Brain Drain
A brain drain is a situation that occurs when talented and highly skilled...

In the study of kinship, a clan is a collection of people who see themselves...

Classical Social Movement Theory
Classical social movement theory’s main argument is that social movements...

Aligning and Realigning Action
An aligning action is any behavior that indicates to others the acceptance of...

Aberrant Deviance
Aberrant deviance is an act that violates a law or other norm secretly...

Milgram Obedience Studies
What happens if an authority figure demands obedience, even if the task is something that the person finds morally wrong? The Milgram Obedience Studies found some chilling answers questioning the limits of social pressure.

Quantitative Research Methods Used In Sociology
Quantitative research is research that uses numerical analysis. In essence, this approach reduces the data into numbers.

Crosstabs are a great way to familiarize yourself with the data you are working with and to get a rough idea of how the variables in your data set are related, if at all. Crosstabs are useful for exploring the data, exploring relationships in your data, and determining future analyzes.

Survival Analysis
Survival analysis, also known as event history analysis, is a class of statistical methods for studying the occurrence and timing of events. These methods are most often applied to the study of deaths, however they are also extremely useful in studying many different kinds of events in both the social and natural sciences.

Structural Equation Modeling
Structural equation modeling is an advanced statistical technique that has many layers and many complex concepts. This article provides a very general overview of the method.