Space/Astronomy Sitemap - Page 3 2016-09-26

Galileo: the Man Who Discovered the Moons of Jupiter
Galileo Galilei first used telescopes to gaze at the sky, demonstrated key points of gravity, and modernized science. Learn more about him.

Edward Higgins White II Biography
Edward Higgins White II, (Lt. Colonel, USAF) performed on Gemini missions, and was an Apollo astronaut. He was killed during a fire in the Apollo 1 capsule.

Astronaut Neil Armstrong Biography
It was July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong spoke what must be considered the most famous words of the 20th century, becoming the first person to land on the Moon.

News from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and all its agencies concerning space exploration. Current events and updates on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects and missions. Astronomy news from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
NASA News from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and all its agencies concerning space exploration. Current events and updates on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects and missions. NASA news from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

Cassini-Huygens Spacecraft Mission
Launched from Kennedy Space Center on Oct. 15, 1997, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft will reach the Saturnian region in July 2004. The mission is composed of two elements: The Cassini orbiter that will orbit Saturn and its moons for four years, and the Huygens probe that will dive into the murky atmosphere of Titan and land on its surface.

Aristotle Biography - Early Life and Plato
Aristotle's thoughts about the universe formed the basis for much of what passed as scientific thought for centuries. Here's more about him.

Losing the Dark
Too many lights at night have adverse effects on humans and wildlife. Learn how to use lights safely and properly, while returning the dark of night to planet Earth.

Wormholes and Space Travel
One of the theoretical consequences of general relativity is the existence of regions of space known as wormholes. Could they be used for travel?

Galileo Galilei - Astronomy Rebel With A Cause - Biography of Galileo Galilei.
Galileo Galilei - Astronomer. Read about the life and work of Galileo Galilei, perhaps the greatest scientist of all time, who went from genius to heretic and back again. Galileo Galilei, first used telescopes for scientific purposes, refined telescopes beyond being toys, demonstrated key points of gravity, and modernized science. Read the biography of Galileo Galilei. Page 2.

Information About Magnetars
Magnetars are neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields. How they are created is still under debate as astronomers study more of them.

Space Exploration Tools and Equipment - Tools and Equipment for the Space Age
From Robots to Spaceships, find information on all the equipment and tools needed for space exploration. Learn about the hardware and software, tools and equipment used by astronauts. Tools and equipment for the space age.

Visiting the Johnson Houston Space Center
The Houston Space Center, also known as the Johnson Space Center, is a place where you can experience space in all its drama and excitement.

Shuttles - Space Shuttles and Reusable Launch Vehicles Resources
The Space Shuttle, work horse of NASA. Rockets are too expensive to waste. Space Shuttles can take off and land again to be used in the future. Discover more about the space shuttles and other reusable launch vehicles. Includes Space Shuttle Challenger and Space Shuttle Columbia Disaster Resources.

Space Stations & Habitats - Space Station Resources From Salyut 1 to Skylab to the International Space Station
Space Stations provide a working platform in Earth orbit. The former USSR launched the first space station, Salyut 1 in 1971. Skylab, America's first space station launched 2 years later in 1973. Currently, the International Space Station is a joint effort between many nations. What will the future of space stations be like?

Astronomy Books for All Ages
Looking for a great book in astronomy -- here are a few suggestions to get you started on your road to the sky, from self-learning to telescope buying guides.

Energy Shields and Tractor Beams
In Star Trek, starships are equipped with advanced technologies that allow for the creation of powerful energy fields. Are these technologies plausible?

The Moon in June and other Skygazing Delights
Stargazing in June gives you a glimpse of the Milky Way, a chance to view the Moon, and check out the stars and planets. Here are some hints and tips.

Mark your calendars for these astronomy and space related events.
Mark your calendars for these astronomy and space related events.

To the human eye, space appears serene and void. To an X-ray telescope, the universe is totally different a violent, vibrant, and ever-changing place. The Chandra X-ray Observatory allows scientists to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of these and other exotic environments to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe.
To the human eye, space appears serene and void. To an X-ray telescope, the universe is totally different a violent, vibrant, and ever-changing place. The Chandra X-ray Observatory allows scientists to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of these and other exotic environments to help understand the structure and evolution of the universe.

European Space Agency News and Current Events
News from European Space Agency (ESA) and all its agencies concerning space exploration. Current events and updates on European Space Agency (ESA) projects and missions. Astronomy news from the European Space Agency (ESA).

Hubble Space Telescope News - Images & Info From Hubble Space Telescope
The basic mission of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is to enable scientific advances in astronomy that will change humankind's view of its place in the universe. Here, we provide news and images from Space Telescope Science Institute.

Spitzer Space Telescope News and Images - Formerly SIRTF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility
The Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly SIRTF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) was launched into space by a Delta rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida on 25 August 2003. During its 2.5-year mission, Spitzer will obtain images and spectra by detecting the infrared energy, or heat, radiated by objects in space between wavelengths of 3 and 180 microns (1 micron is one-millionth of a meter).

Year In Review of Astronomy and Space
Here at About Astronomy and Space, we provide you with great information and news. It's always a roller coaster here at About Astronomy & Space, and these are just a samplings of what went on. What will the future bring? I don't know, but come on along for the ride.

Meet and Mingle with Other Stargazers
Looking for a great vacation idea? A weekend activity? Try a star party as a way to get started in astronomy, or as a great family activity!

Astronomy 101 - Astronomy History - Seeing Is Believing
Astronomy 101: A Renaissance in Science -- part of a series on the history of astronomy. This one covers the work of Galileo, Kepler, and Newton.

The Complete Space Shuttle Challenger Story
The Challenger space shuttle performed a number of missions. It was destroyed by an explosion in January 1986 that killed all seven astronauts aboard.

Biography of Buzz Aldrin
On July 20, 1969, Buzz Aldrin became the second man to ever set foot on the Moon. Read more about Dr. Aldrin and his current activities.

What does the Term "Blueshift" Mean?
Learn more about the term

What is a Star and How Does it Work?
This article explains the basic differences between stars and planets, how stars work, what types there are, and where they are distributed in space.

The Sun-Centered Universe, Decrypted
Discover the Heliocentric theory and how Nicolaus Copernicus made it popular by rejecting the older Ptolemaic Earth-centered system.

The Life of Astronomer Claudius Ptolemy
Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Roman citizen who lived in ancient Alexandria, Egypt. He was an astronomer, mathematician and geographer.

Glossaries and Dictionaries of Astronomy and Space Terms
Find the definitions to the words you are looking for in the glossaries and dictionaries.

So, You REALLY Want a Telescope?


Astronomy Dictionary - Discover Definitions in this Astronomy Dictionary
Discovery definitions to astronomy terms in this astronomy dictionary.

Space Dictionary - Discover Space Definitions in this Space Dictionary
Discover the definition of all your space terms in this space dictionary

What "Redshift" tells You About an Object
Redshift describes what happens to an object's light as it moves away from us. Its spectrum is shifted to the

Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrology
A comparison of the terms astronomy, astrophysics and astrology. Often confused, the differences and similarities are analyzed and discussed.

Learn More about the Bright Star Sirius
Sirius is the brightest star in the sky. It's in the constellation Canis Major and is visible to us in the evenings from around October through May.

Tycho Brahe - Danish Father of Modern Astronomy
Tycho Brahe was the Danish Father of modern astronomy. His work inspired new generations of observers to learn more about the cosmos.

Biography of Ronald E. McNair (Ph.D.) - NASA Astronaut
A biography of Ronald E. McNair (Ph.D.), one of seven astronauts who died when space shuttle Challenger STS-51L exploded 71 seconds after launch in Jan. 1986.

What's the Most Distant Galaxy Ever Seen?
The hunt for the most distant galaxies is also a way to understand what the universe was like more than 13 billion years ago.

Will a Rock from Space Wipe us Out?
The threat of a large asteroid or comet colliding with Earth is very real. Can we divert or deflect or even destroy incoming asteroids? Let's find out.

Valentina Tereshkova: First Woman in Space - Biography
The biography of Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space. The USSR sent Tereshkova into space many years before NASA sent astronaut Sally Ride.

Valentina Tereshkova Biography
The first woman in space was Valentina Tereshkova, cosmonaut. The USSR sent a female cosmonaut, Valentina Tereshkova into space many years before NASA sent astronaut, Sally Ride. This is a biography of Valentina Tereshkova. Page 2.

Interesting Facts About Neptune
Neptune is one of the largest planets in the solar system and the most distant worlds circling the Sun. It's worth a quick look to learn more.

History of Astronomy and Space Exploration (Timeline)
Astronomy is part of the larger human endeavor to understand the universe, its origin and evolution. This timeline gives some highlights.

What Happens To The Human Body In A Vacuum
The movies give us a somewhat distorted view of what happens to human bodies in vacuum. Here's the straight skinny about what can happen to you in a vacuum.

Halley's Comet - Some History and Facts
Although it won't be back for a few decades yet, Comet Halley has stoked the interest of skywatchers for centuries. Come learn more about it!

Multimedia Resources - Astronomy Pictures, Space Videos - Audio Visual Resources
Find your astronomy pictures here along with videos of space exploration and historic audio files. Download multimedia files including pictures, audio, and video.

Audio and Sound
Discover audio and sound clips as well as music dealing with astronomy and space.

Pictures, Images and Graphics
Find pictures, images, and graphics dealing with astronomy and space exploration.

Computer Wallpaper and Screensavers
Space up your computer with these astronomy and space themed wallpapers and screensavers.

Mars Books - The Red Planet - Top Books on Mars
Discover our neighbor, Mars, in all its glory with this selection of books describing its exploration and place in history.

Learn the Basics about Mars
Mars Information. Astronomy Guide to Space exploration close to home. Information on planets in our solar system. Information on Mars, the red planet.

The Milky Way Galaxy: What We Know About It
The Milky Way Galaxy is our little corner of the cosmic neighborhood. It's way more than stars, planets, and nebulae! Learn more here!

6 Things To Know About How To Buy a Telescope
So, you want to know how to buy a telescope. Being a knowledgeable consumer is key. Here are six things to keep in mind as you shop.

Evidence of Dark Energy - Is it Real?
Dark energy and its role in the expansion of the universe is still not well understood. So what evidence exists that dark energy is actually real?

The Woman Who Explained the Sun and Stars
Dr. Cecelia Payne-Gaposchkin was an astronomer who discovered and explained the composition of the Sun and stars. She was a pioneering woman in astronomy.

Eta Carinae's Explosive Future
There's a huge star about to explode in the Southern Hemisphere Skies. Find out what will happen to Eta Carinae when it finally blows up as a hypernova.

Space and Astronomy in the Movies
The genre of science fiction has been around for decades. But some movies do a better job of getting the science right than others. Here we explore different movies and how well they capture our current knowledge and predict the future state of our world.

Is Sex in Space Possible?
One of the most popular questions fielded by astronauts asks about sex in space. Let's examine the physical issues around such a touchy subject.

What Are the Closest Stars to Earth?
What are the closest stars to us? Beyond the Sun there are ten close neighbors. Let's learn more about them!

Frequently Asked Questions About Astronomy & Space
Got questions about space and astronomy? Here are some of the most-asked queries and some answers to help you learn more about the cosmos.

Astronomy 101 - Early History of Astronomy
Get started on learning the history of astronomy, one of humanity's oldest and most fascinating sciences.

The Origin of Our Solar System
Our Sun and planets formed in a giant cloud of gas and dust, beginning about 4.5 billion years ago.

What Lies Between Galaxies?
A look at how astronomers explore the deeps of space between galaxies, using special properties of light to illuminate the voids.

Starburst Galaxies
Starburst galaxies are not a separate class but rather a state where a galaxy has a lot of star formation. There are several ideas about why this happens.

Supermassive Black Holes - an Introduction
Supermassive black holes are some of the most powerful objects in the universe and are commonly found in the centers of galaxies.

Near Earth Objects - NEO
According to NASA, asteroids big enough to cause catastrophic destruction could theoretically hit Earth every million years, or at longer intervals. Discover articles concerning Near Earth Objects (NEOs).

Pictures of Asteroids & Minor Planets - Asteroids Images
View and download asteroids pictures and graphics. Find some great asteroids images.

Where Did Phobos and Deimos Come From? Two Theories
Mars has two moons: Phobos and Deimos. Planetary scientists debate about whether they formed in an ancient collision, or could be captured asteroids.

Discover Johannes Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
Johannes Kepler devised his three laws of motion from his observations of planets that are fundamental to our understanding of orbital motions.

The Mysterious Moon of Makemake
What does the Hubble Space Telescope's discovery of a distant moon around a dwarf planet tell us about the outer solar system?

Launch Systems around the World
What are people using to get to space these days? 27 countries have (or had) launch capability, using rockets to lift materials and people off Earth.

How Was the Moon Made? - Several Theories
How was the Moon made? Ideas about its formation intrigued scientists for centuries, and now there are several plausible ideas about its origin.

The Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxies on Collision Course
Our own Milky Way Galaxy and the nearby Andromeda Galaxy are on a collision course and will one day merge into a single, massive galaxy.

Astronomy and Space Timeline
The history of the universe is a 13.7-billion-year-long timeline. Let's explore the highlights of cosmic history and see where we're going.

Astronomy Day: Learn More about the Sky!
Astronomy Day occurs twice a year; it's your chance to learn more about the oldest science! Learn more about this day celebrating skywatching!

Project Mercury - History and information on Project Mercury
The actual beginning of the effort that resulted in manned space flight cannot be pinpointed. Implementation was initiated to establish Project Mercury, on October 7, 1958. The objectives of the Mercury Project were to place a manned spacecraft in orbital flight, investigate man's performance capabilities, and recover the man & the spacecraft safely.

Astronauts of Project Mercury: The Mercury 7
The Mercury program astronauts were true pioneers. Learn how the original seven astronauts were selected from among the nation's top pilots.

Project Mercury and the Mercury 7 Astronauts - Missions
Implementation was initiated to establish Project Mercury, on October 7, 1958. The life of Project Mercury was about 4 2/3 years, from the time of its official go-ahead to the completion of the 34-hour orbital mission of Astronaut Cooper. During this period, much was learned about man's capabilities in the space environment & his capabilities in earthbound activities which enabled the successful accomplishment of the objectives of the Mercury Project in this relatively short period. Page 2.

How Did Stars Traditionally Get Their Names?
Want to know how stars get their official names? They come from a variety of cultural and scientific sources, all approved for use by the astronomy community.

Peculiar Galaxies
Not all galaxies have the beautiful spiral or elliptical shape that many galaxies do. These oddballs are called peculiar galaxies.

Space Disasters Through History
Every loss of life diminishes us, but unfortunately risk is inevitable. There have been several space disasters during the history of exploration. Here are the stories, in hope that we can avoid such future space disasters.

History of NASA
The birth of space exploration began with the threat of war. But now, while still in its infancy, the future of man reaching beyond our rocky world exists with less antagonism. The history of NASA is ripe with triumph and failure, but more importantly, it is a story of perseverance, and one of overcoming what many felt was impossible.

Clothing and Gifts
Find clothing and gifts with an astronomy and space theme for your favorite amateur astronomer or space enthusiast.

Humor About Astronomy and Space
Astronomy and space related humor, including jokes, riddles, and cartoons to tickle your funny bone. Get your daily does of space humor here, where we have a wicked sense of humor.

Models of Spacecraft: Models With a Space Theme
An excellent way to learn more about space exploration equipment is to build a scale model. Spend some time assembling one, and you'll be sure to know the spacecraft very well indeed!

Celestial Tunes and Compositions
Discover music with an astronomy or space theme.

Stories Dealing With Astronomy and Space
Read a fun story about astronomy or space exploration.

Games and Toys for Astronomy and Space Exploration Enthusiasts
Play a game to pass the time. These games all have an astronomy or space theme. Discover toys for education or just for fun.

Christa McAuliffe - Space Shuttle Challenger Teacher
On January 28, 1986, the world lost one of its greatest resources, Christa McAuliffe, the space shuttle Challenger astronaut teacher.

Christa McAuliffe - Space Shuttle Challenger Astronaut - Teacher
On January 28, 1986, the world lost one of its greatest resources, Christa McAuliffe the space shuttle Challenger astronaut teacher. Page 2.

Matter-Antimatter Power - Is it Possible?
Can we travel to the stars using matter-antimatter containment systems and warp drives? Maybe, but it could still be a few decades away.

Astronaut Biographies
Astronaut biographies, read more about astronauts, the brave men & women who have made a success of the US Astronaut Program. Learn more about US astronauts, as well as find astronaut biographies of international astronauts who trained at NASA. Read details of the lives of astronauts in these astronaut biographies.

Biographies of the brave men and women who have made a success of the Russian Cosmonaut Program.
Biographies of the brave men and women who have made a success of the Russian Cosmonaut Program.

Comets and X-rays? What's Up with THAT?
Comets continue to surprise astronomers, particularly when they reveal vital information about the solar wind in the form of x-ray emissions.

Astronomy: the Study of the Stars, Planets, and Galaxies
Astronomy is the scientific study of all objects beyond our world, and a way to understand the physical laws and origins of the universe.

Exploration of the Cosmos
Can humans travel to the stars? Not yet. But, technology solutions that could bring people on voyages of interstellar exploration are in our future.

Light Sails and Space Exploration
Learn about light sails -- the wave of the future in space travel.

Employment in Space and Astronomy and Job Search
Job search in the astronomy or space exploration fields. Find employment through these job search resources. Helpful employment hints and information for wherever your job search takes you.

Living In Space - Spending Extended Periods in Orbit
Discover what life in orbit is like with this information about living in space.

Astronomy of Energetic Objects
X-ray astronomy studies the most energetic objects and events.

Space Exploration with Light Sails
Learn about light sails -- the wave of the future in space travel. Some future missions may be using these sails to glide out to the nearest stars.

Benjamin Banneker Biography - Space/Astronomy
Meet Benjamin Banneker, a watchmaker and surveyor who became America's first African-American astronomer. Among other things, he worked to predict eclipses.

Weather Satellites: our Early Warning Systems for Storms
Weather satellites help track weather events such as Hurricane Patricia. Read more about weather satellites and their importance to humans.

How Many Habitable Planets are in the Milky Way Galaxy?
Astronomers have found many planets orbiting distant stars. The next question to ask: how many of these worlds have the ability to support life?

Supernovae: The Deaths of Massive Stars
A supernova explosion is the powerful and catastrophic death of a star. There are two types of supernovae, each one with its own special characteristics.

Top 10 Most Massive Stars in the Universe
Galaxies host some of the most massive in the universe. The top 10 most massive stars are also interesting objects of study.

The Hyades Star Cluster: Face of the Starry Bull
Plan your stargazing around some easy-to-spot objects. The Hyades is a star cluster visible Oct-March each year. Learn more about it here!

Galaxies and Gravity Combine to Make a Smiley in Space
Hubble Space Telescope takes advantage of a special property of galaxy clusters -- their strong gravitational pull -- to examine the light from distant galaxies behind the clusters.

Looking for Black Holes in Out-of-the-Way Galaxies
Astronomers are finding supermassive black holes in many galaxies, including at least one in a very out-of-the-way place in the universe!

Origin of the Universe -- the Big Bang Theory Explained
How was the universe born? The best idea with the most observational support is the Big Bang theory, which astronomers are working to understand.

Stardust
On January 2, 2004, Stardust flew within 236 kilometers of Comet Wild 2 and captured thousands of particles in its aerogel collector for return on Earth in January 2006. The encounter - the closest approach to a comet yet - revealed a much stranger world than previously believed.

Surveyor - Lunar Missions
Following the Ranger missions, NASA's Surveyor program was designed to find a way to safely land on the Moon. After three practice missions, five of the seven Surveyor spacecraft made it to the Moon. Initially intended to be a series of robotic scientific missions, the project's focus was switched to engineering in support of the Apollo program to land men on the Moon.

Ulysses Mission
Ulysses is the first spacecraft to study the unexplored region of space above our Sun's poles. The spacecraft was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery and sent towards Jupiter with powerful booster rockets. After studying Jupiter for 17 days, Ulysses used the giant planet's gravity to hurl it into an orbit out of the Ecliptic Plane, where planets orbit our Sun.

Astronomy Tools and Equipment - Tools and Equipment for the Space Age
From Skymaps to Telescopes, find information on all the equipment and tools needed for astronomy. Learn about the hardware and software, tools and equipment used by astronomers. Tools and equipment for the space age.

Clementine Mission - Lunar Mission
Clementine gave scientists their first total look at the the Moon's landscape. The spacecraft also found signs of a large deposit of ice in a permanently shadowed crater on the Moon's south pole. Clementine completed its mission of 297 lunar orbits. A planned asteroid encounter was cancelled due to a thruster malfunction that burned up its remaining fuel.

Explorer Missions
The Explorer program is the longest running series of NASA missions. Explorer spacecraft have studied the Sun, Moon, Earth and the environment of our solar system. Several of them are still in operation. The first in the series - Explorer 1 - was America's first satellite, a response to Russia's Sputnik 1 launch in 1957. The program continues today with mission oprations planned through 2009.

Lunar Orbiter Missions
Five Lunar Orbiter missions were launched in 1966 - 67 to map the lunar surface before the Apollo landings. All 5 missions were successful. The first 3 missions were dedicated to imaging 20 potential lunar landing sites. Lunar Orbiter 4 photographed the entire nearside and 95% of the farside, & Lunar Orbiter 5 completed the farside coverage.

Lunar Prospector
Lunar Prospector was designed to provide answers to long-standing questions about the Moon, its resources, its structure and its origins. For a year and a half, its five instruments - the gamma-ray spectrometer, alpha particle spectrometer, neutron spectrometer, magnetometer and electron reflectometer - mapped lunar resources, gravity, and magnetic fields, and even outgassing events.

Luna (USSR) - Unmanned Lunar Exploration Program
From the 1950s through the 1970s, the Soviet Union (USSR) had an ambitious plan for lunar exploration using unmanned craft. While the vast majority of the 45 missions failed spectacularly, the successes of this program made space exploration history. Not only were seventeen missions successes, several were also key victories in the space race between the United States and the former USSR.

Mariner Missions to Venus and Mars
As plans were getting under way to explore the Moon with the Rangers and Surveyors, JPL and NASA also turned their attention to the rest of the solar system. The Mariner series of missions were designed to be the first U.S. spacecraft to other planets, specifically Venus and Mars.

MESSENGER
MESSENGER is a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. Understanding Mercury, and the forces that have shaped it, is fundamental to understanding the terrestrial planets and their evolution. MESSENGER's journey will include one Earth flyby, two Venus flybys and three Mercury flybys before it enters orbit in 2011.

Ranger Missions
The Ranger series of spacecraft were designed to take high-quality pictures of the Moon and transmit them back to Earth in real time. The images were to be used for scientific study, as well as selecting landing sites for the Apollo Moon missions.

SOHO Mission - The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
The international Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) has been keeping a steady watch on the Sun since April 1996. Keeping the Sun under almost constant observation, the SOHO team has been able to warn Earth about approaching coronal mass ejections that could potentially disrupt communications.

Sputnik - USSR Satellite - First Artificial Satellite in Space
Sputnik 1 - First Artificial Satellite In Space. The world, especially the US, was shocked, when on October 4, 1957, the USSR launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. The name comes from a word for

The Constellation Project
Space/Astronomy.

The Basics of Telescopes
Discover the basics of telescope astronomy with this guide. Telescopes come in three basic designs; Refractor, Reflector, and Catadioptric, plus variations.

Visiting Wallops Flight Facility
NASA's facilities at Wallops Flight Facility are open to the public for visitor center visits and launches. Learn more about this amazing NASA center.

Time Travel - Is It Possible to Travel Into the Past?
Is backwards time travel possible? While it's not an astronomy question, there are some objects in the cosmos that COULD affect the flow of time. Learn more!

Messaging a Globular Cluster
You've heard of the Hercules Cluster, so take a few moments to step outside and find it. It's packed with stars and older than the Milky Way Galaxy!

Venus - Venus Information and Venus Pictures
Venus whose Greek equivalent was Aphrodite the Greek goddess of love and beauty. Venus probably got its name from being the brightest object in the sky except for the Sun & the Moon. At one time, Venus was thought to be two separate bodies: morning star, Eosphorus & evening star, Hesperus. Venus is the 2nd planet from the Sun & 6th largest. Find out more with these links to Venus.

10 Things You Should Know About Mercury
Mercury was explored by two spacecraft. It turns out to be one of the most interesting worlds in the solar system. Learn more about this tiny planet.

Formation and Types of Irregular Galaxies
Irregular galaxies are a distinct

Red Supergiants - The Largest Stars in the Universe
The largest stars in the universe are red supergiants. They are massive stars that live fast, die young, and leave behind beautiful nebulae that eventually form new stars.

Peering Into a Planet Nursery Using Radio Waves
Astronomers use whatever they can to study such processes as star and planet birth. Radio astronomy is a tool that reveals details inside stellar nurseries.

X-ray Astronomy Exploration
X-ray astronomy is the study of hot, energetic objects and events in space.

What Is the Doppler Effect? - Definition in Astronomy
The Doppler effect is a tool used to measure frequency changes as light travels to, from, or past an observer. It gives information about an object's speed.

Early Impacts Erase the Early Atmosphere
Early Earth history is one of the most fascinating topics of planetary science today. Read up on how its climate may have changed drastically!

Does the U.S. Military Have a Secret Space Shuttle?
The idea of a secret military shuttle program is intriguing, but there were no secret space shuttles. However the military does have a shuttle-like craft.

Astronaut Dr. Bernard Harris, Jr. Biography
Bernard Harris was the first African-American man to walk in space, and is an accomplished doctor and business leader.

Get Out there and Use Your Star Chart!
The challenge of stargazing with your chart: get started!

Star-hopping Your Way Across the Sky
Lesson 3 on how to read a star chart.

What About Other Directions in the Sky?
Lesson 4 on how to read a star chart

Angling Across the Sky
Lesson 5 on how to read a star chart.

The Ecliptic and its Zodiac Zoo
Lesson 6 on how to read a star chart.

Finding and Exploring the Planets
Lesson 7 on how to read a star chart.

Finding and Exploring the Deeps of Space
Lesson 8 on how to read a star chart.

Constellations and Asterisms
Lesson 2 on how to read a star chart.

How to Read A Star Chart and Stargaze
A collection of tips on how to read a star chart.

Finding the Cardinal Points: Directions in the Sky
Lesson 1 on how to read a star chart.

Big Questions in Astronomy
Astronomy inspires big questions: where did the universe come from, what is dark matter, and more. Let's look at some of these questions -- and answers.

Forging Ahead to the Red Planet!
The ExoMars mission to Mars is the latest in a series of spacecraft that are teaching us about the Red Planet. Why do we study Mars and when will humans go? Find out here.

Galaxy Clusters: Busy Neighborhoods in the Universe
Galaxy clusters merge to create even larger superclusters. Their mutual gravity hold them together. Astronomers study them to understand their origin and evolution.

Facts About Jupiter, the Largest Planet
Jupiter is the king of the planets and a fascinating world with a great many secrets that have been revealed by spacecraft and telescope observations.

Searching for Ice-bound Life on Earth
Drilling for life in the Antarctic lakes beneath miles-thick glaciers could give us clues to the extent of life on Earth -- and the possibility of living beings on other worlds with similar environments.

Microwave Radiation
In astronomy, microwave radiation

Earth Pictures - Pictures of Earth
Earth is the only planet whose name is not derived from Greek/Roman mythology. Discover pictures of our home world, the third rock from the sun.

Top Ten Neil Armstrong Quotes & Phrases
Neil Armstrong, the first person to set foot on the Moon, remained a hero to the end of his days. Here are some of his most widely known quotes.

Astronomy @ the Oscars
Space and astronomy often find their way into the movies. How well do they do at the Oscars? Some years are better than others, but for some reason science is a tough sell.

The Planet Uranus - Seventh Planet From the Sun
The planet Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun, and while it does have some commonalities with its neighbor Neptune, it is also very unique in many ways. This large, gaseous, somewhat icy and undeniably beautiful planet has been acknowledged for millennia, but was curiously re-discovered in 1781 by Sir William Herschel.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - X-Rays Emanate From Heated Material Falling Into Black Hole
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - X-Rays Emanate From Heated Material Falling Into Black Hole - Astronomers unveiled the deepest images from NASA's new Spitzer Space Telescope today, and announced the detection of distant objects including several supermassive black holes that are nearly invisible in even the deepest images from telescopes operating at other wavelengths. - NASA, ESA, A. M. Koekemoer (STScI), M. Dickinson (NOAO) and The GOODS Team

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - A Cosmic Searchlight
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - A Cosmic Searchlight - Streaming out from the center of the galaxy M87 like a cosmic searchlight is one of nature's most amazing phenomena, a black-hole-powered jet of electrons and other sub-atomic particles traveling at nearly the speed of light. In this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image, the blue of the jet contrasts with the yellow glow from the combined light of billions of unseen stars and the yellow, point-like globular clusters that make up this galaxy. Page 15.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - A Dying Star in Globular Cluster M15
A Dying Star in Globular Cluster M15 - The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. Page 14.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Black Hole in Galaxy M87 Emits Jet of High-Speed Electrons
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Black Hole in Galaxy M87 Emits Jet of High-Speed Electrons - Space Telescope Science Institute astronomers and their co-investigators have gained their first glimpse of the mysterious region near a black hole at the heart of a distant galaxy, where a powerful stream of subatomic particles spewing outward at nearly the speed of light is formed into a beam, or jet, that then goes nearly straight for thousands of light-years. Page 13.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Black Hole's Disk is Flooded With Ultraviolet Light
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Black Hole's Disk is Flooded With Ultraviolet Light - NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided a never-before-seen view of a warped disk flooded with a torrent of ultraviolet light from hot gas trapped around a suspected massive black hole. - Philippe Crane (European Southern Observatory) and NASA. Page 12.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Compact Core of Galaxy M87
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Compact Core of Galaxy M87 - NASA's Hubble Space Telescope clearly shows the central core and accompanying jet of the giant elliptical galaxy M87. This near-infrared image was taken with HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WF/PC), in high resolution mode, on June 1, 1991. The image is being presented on Thursday, January 16th at the 179th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. - Tod R. Lauer, Sandra M. Faber/NASA. Page 11.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Feasting Black Hole Blows Bubbles
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Feasting Black Hole Blows Bubbles - A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. - NASA and Jeffrey Kenney and Elizabeth Yale (Yale University). Page 10.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Fireworks Near a Black Hole in the Core of Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Fireworks Near a Black Hole in the Core of Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151 - The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) simultaneously records, in unprecedented detail, the velocities of hundreds of gas knots streaming at hundreds of thousands of miles per hour from the nucleus of NGC 4151, thought to house a supermassive black hole. - John Hutchings (DAO), Bruce Woodgate (GSFC/NASA), Mary Beth Kaiser (JHU), Steven Kraemer (CUA), the STIS Team, and NASA. Page 9.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Giant Disk of Cold Gas and Dust Fuels Possible Black Hole at the Core of NGC 4261
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Giant Disk of Cold Gas and Dust Fuels Possible Black Hole at the Core of NGC 4261 - Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have gotten their best look yet at the disk of material that surrounds and is being pulled into a suspected black hole. - Walter Jaffe/Leiden Observatory, Holland Ford/JHU/STScI, and NASA. Page 8.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Globular Cluster M31 G1
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Globular Cluster M31 G1 - Medium-size black holes actually do exist, according to the latest findings from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, but scientists had to look in some unexpected places to find them. - NASA and Michael Rich (UCLA). Page 7.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Hubble Discovers Black Holes in Unexpected Places
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Hubble Discovers Black Holes in Unexpected Places - These two globular star clusters, M15 and G1, harbor hundreds of thousands of stars. But deep within their dense cores is an unexpected guest: a class of intermediate-sized black holes. Black holes are invisible, but the probing eye of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope found them by measuring the velocities of stars whirling around the crowded cores. Page 6.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Hubble Spies Globular Cluster in Neighboring Galaxy
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Hubble Spies Globular Cluster in Neighboring Galaxy - Hubble Space Telescope has captured a view of a globular cluster called G1, a large, bright ball of light in the center of the photograph consisting of at least 300,000 old stars. - Michael Rich, Kenneth Mighell, James D. Neill (Columbia), Wendy Freedman (Carnegie Obs), and NASA. Page 5.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Hubble Uncovers Dust Disk around a Massive Black Hole
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Hubble Uncovers Dust Disk around a Massive Black Hole - Resembling a gigantic hubcap in space, a 3,700-light-year-wide dust disk encircles a 300-million- solar-mass black hole in the center of the elliptical galaxy NGC 7052. - Roeland P. van der Marel (STScI), Frank C. van den Bosch (Univ. of Washington), and NASA. Page 4.

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - Ring Around a Suspected Black Hole in Galaxy NGC 4261
The gravitational pull of a suspected super-massive black hole forms a frisbee-like disk of cool gas, at the core of an energetic galaxy. Subsequent Hubble observations of yet another active galaxy (M87) confirmed the reality of monstrous black holes gravitational

Black Holes Pictures Gallery - STIS Records a Black Hole's Signature
Black Holes Pictures Gallery - STIS Records a Black Hole's Signature - The colorful

Discover Pictures and Explanations of Black Holes
Formed when a massive star collapses from its own gravity, black holes have such a strong pull of gravity that not even light can escape from them. Today's scientists believe that a black hole is the end product in the lifecycle of a giant star. If this star is three or four times as massive as our own sun, even after it has exhausted all its fuel, then it can collapse under its own gravity.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Telescopic photograph of Apollo 13 spacecraft in translunar trajectory
A telescopic photograph showing the Apollo 13 spacecraft in translunar trajectory in the distant sky. Arrows point to the spacecraft, to the oxygen cloud, and to the expended Saturn V third stage. Apollo 13 was tracked at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) using a 16-inch Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with an IO television camera with an S-20 type IO tube, mounted in place of the eyepiece. Page 6.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew
The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown
Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Page 2.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 emergency return
As the Apollo 13 crewmen entered their final 24 hours in space, several persons important to the mission remained attentive at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) at Manned Spacecraft Center.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - View of damaged Apollo 13 Service Module from the Lunar/Command Modules
This view of the damaged Apollo 13 Service Module (SM) was photographed from the Command Module (CM) just after the CM/SM separation prior to Earth re-entry. As seen here, an entire panel on the SM was blown away by the apparent explosion of oxygen tank number two located in Sector 4 of the SM. Two of the three fuel cells are visible just forward (above) the heavily damaged area. Three fuel cells, two oxygen tanks, and two hydrogen tanks are located in Sector 4. Page 3.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - View of damaged Apollo 13 Service Module from the Lunar/Command Modules
This view of the damaged Apollo 13 Service Module (SM) was photographed from the Lunar Module/Command Module following SM jettisoning. As seen here, an entire panel on the SM was blown away by the apparent explosion of oxygen tank number two located in Sector 4 of the SM. Two of the three fuel cells are visible just forward the heavily damaged area. Three fuel cells, two oxygen tanks, and two hydrogen tanks are locate in Sector 4. The damaged area is located above the S-band high gain antenna. Page 4.

Pictures of the Successful Failure Apollo 13
It was the thirteenth scheduled lunar space exploration mission, scheduled for liftoff at the thirteenth minute after the thirteenth hour. The Lunar landing was scheduled for the thirteenth day of the month. All it lacked was a Friday to be a paraskevidekatriaphobe’s worst nightmare. Apollo 13, the third planned Lunar-landing mission, was scheduled for launch on April 11, 1970 but did not lift off until the 13th. The launch, itself, went according to plan, if an hour late.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 Astronaut Fred Haise during lunar surface simulation training
Astronaut Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Haise is attached to a Six Degrees of Freedom Simulator. Using mock-ups, he simulates traversing with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) via a barbell mode. Page 19.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 Crew Returns Home
This photograph shows Apollo 13 astronauts Fred Haise, John Swigert, and James Lovell aboard the recovery ship, USS Iwo Jima after safely touching down in the Pacific Ocean at the end of their ill-fated mission. The mission was aborted after 56 hours of flight, 205,000 miles from Earth, when an oxygen tank in the service module exploded. The command module, Odyssey, brought the three astronauts back home safely. Page 16.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 Crew at Press Conference
Apollo 13 astronauts Fred Haise, John Swigert, and James Lovell are pictured during the press conference after their ill-fated mission. The Apollo 13 mission (the third lunar landing mission) was aborted after 56 hours of flight, 205,000 miles from Earth, when an oxygen tank in the service module exploded. Page 18.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 crew recovery after splashdown
A water-level view of the Apollo 13 recovery operations in the South Pacific. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team assists the astronauts in egressing their Command Module and entering life rafts. The Apollo 13 Command Module splashed down at 12:07:44 p.m., April 17, 1970. Page 17.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 crewmembers in suiting room prior to launch
Astronaut John L. Swigert Jr., command module pilot, appears to be relaxing in the suiting room at Kennedy Space Center prior to launch. Swigert replaced Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II when it was discovered that Mattingly had been exposed to the measles; Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., commander for Apollo 13 mission, undergoes spacesuit checks a few hours before launch. Page 15.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 crewmen during post flight debriefing activity at MSC
The three crewmen of the Apollo 13 mission are photographed during the first day of their post-flight debriefing activity at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Page 14.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 emblem
This is the insignia of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing how the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 prime crew portrait
Apollo 13 prime crew portrait. From left to right are Astronauts James A. Lovell, Thomas K. Mattingly, and Fred W. Haise in their space suits. On the table in front of them are (l-r) a model of a sextant, the Apollo 13 insignia, and a model of an astrolabe. The sextant and astrolabe are two ancient forms of navigation. Page 12.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 prime crewmembers during water egress training
The three prime crewmembers of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission stand by to participate in water egress training in a water tank in bldg 260 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. They are Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., (left), commander; Fred W. Haise Jr. (right), lunar module pilot; and Thomas K. Mattingly II (in background, obscured by Haise), command module pilot. Page 11.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Apollo 13 space vehicle during Countdown Demonstration Test
Nighttime, ground-level view of Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, showing the Apollo 13 (Spacecraft 109/Lunar Module 7/Saturn 508) space vehicle during a Countdown Demonstration Test; Close-up, nighttime, ground level view of Pad A, Launch Complex 39, showing the Apollo 13 space vehicle during a Countdown Demonstration Test. Page 10.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Astronaut James Lovell reads newspaper account of Apollo 13 safe recovery
Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 mission commander, reads a newspaper account of the safe recovery of the problem plagued mission. Lovell is on board the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for Apollo 13, which was on a course for Pago Pago. Page 9.

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - Astronaut John Swigert with "Mailbox"
Astronaut John L. Swigert, Jr., Apollo 13 Command Module Pilot, holds the

Pictures of Apollo 13 Mission - President Nixon at Hickam AFB congratulates Astronaut James Lovell
President Richard M. Nixon and Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, shake hands at special ceremonies at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. President Nixon was in Hawaii to present the Apollo 13 crew with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor. Page 7.

Information About Lunar Eclipses: Science Behind Events
When the Sun, Earth and Moon are aligned, the Earth will cast a shadow on the Moon creating a phenomenon known as a lunar eclipse. These events have been the subject of mythology and lore, but are readily explained by science.

Robert Goddard - America's First Rocketry Expert
Robert H. Goddard was a pioneer in rocketry and was instrumental in developing the prototypes on which today's rockets are based.

Robert Goddard - America's First Rocketry Expert
On October 5, 1882, Nahum Danford Goddard, a businessman, and Fannie Hoyt Goddard delivered a son, Robert, in Worcester, Massachusetts. Goddard died on Aug. 10, 1945, holding 214 patents in rocketry but having received little attention for his propulsion research. When American rocket scientists began to earnestly prepare for space exploration, they discovered it was almost impossible to build a rocket or launch a satellite without acknowledging the work of Goddard. Page 2.

The Early Years of NASA
Congress and the President of the United States created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on October 1, 1958. Learn more about the early days of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) history. Discover the impact the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had on the world, especially the Cold War. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) continues to be an important part of the United States space program. Page 3.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Congress and the President of the United States created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on October 1, 1958. Learn more about the early days of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) history. Discover the impact the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had on the world, especially the Cold War. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) continues to be an important part of the United States space program.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) History - The Early Days of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Congress and the President of the United States created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on October 1, 1958. Learn more about the early days of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) history. Discover the impact the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had on the world, especially the Cold War. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) continues to be an important part of the United States space program. Page 2.

Guion "Guy" Bluford - First African American In Space
Guion

A List of Firsts and Milestones in Space Exploration
Learn about the historical

History of Astronomy - Rise of Modern in 20th Century
Astronomy 101 - Modern Astronomy - Lesson 3: Astronomy Enters the Twentieth Century

How Many Planets Are in Our Galaxy?
...Or maybe not. The Kepler observatory, orbiting high above the Earth has spent about the last two years peering into the galaxy looking for planets

Astronomy Sky Maps and Resources - Maps of the Sky - Planispheres
Use these sky maps resources to help discover the wonder of the night sky.

Defining "Moon"
What is a moon? Earth has one, Mars has two, the outer planets have swarms of them, including Pluto, which has five. Let's explore what a moon really is!

Is There Sound in Outer Space?
In space, no one can hear you scream, right? It's still true -- sound doesn't move through space, no matter how many times movies and sci-fi TV shows use sound effects.

Top Rock & Pop Songs Inspired by Space Exploration
Space music from the rock era. Discover the best in space music. Top ten rock - pop songs with a space theme including lyrics. These rock - pop songs including lyrics are all dedicated to the space age. Space music for the space enthusiast. Music!

Top Space Related Rock Songs (10-6)
Top ten rock - pop songs with a space theme including lyrics. These rock - pop songs including lyrics are all dedicated to the space age. Page 2.

Space Songs - Top Rock - Pop Space Related Music
Top ten rock - pop songs with a space theme including lyrics. These rock - pop songs including lyrics are all dedicated to the space age. Page 3.

Space Songs - "Rocket Man" by Elton John
Top ten rock - pop songs with a space theme including lyrics. These rock - pop songs including lyrics are all dedicated to the space age. Page 4.

Lenticular Galaxies
Lenticular galaxies seem to fall in between the two better known classes galaxies: the spirals and the ellipticals. Let's explore these interesting oddballs.

Composition of the Universe
What is the universe made of and how do we measure it? These are questions astronomers are still working to answer through observation and theory.

Why is Getting to Mars so Difficult?
The challenges of sending humans to Mars are quite daunting, but they can be overcome. Let's look at a few of those challenges and their solutions.

How Many Alien Civilizations Exist in Our Galaxy?
Astronomers use the Drake Equation to estimate how many other civilizations exist in our galaxy. As of today, no evidence has been found for life

Can Women Get Pregnant in Space?
As human exploration of space expands, people will eventually want to have children in space or on other planets. Can they do this? Let's find out.

Astronomy 101 - Basic Introduction to Space
Astronomy 101 - This basic Astronomy course was designed for those who have an interest in but little education in astronomy. Learn the basics of astronomy here.

The Biography of Nicolaus Copernicus
Disputer of the Ptolemaic System. Creator of the Copernican System. Read the biography of Nicolaus Copernicus.

Gamma Rays and the High-Energy Universe
Gamma rays sound like a science fiction construct, but in real life they reveal highly energetic events both here on Earth and in the distant universe.

What are Moon Phases?
What are Moon phases? What do they tell us about the Moon's orbit around Earth? What causes them? This article explains it all!

What is Matter?
Matter is all around us. It is the physical material of the universe. Learn about this building block of the cosmos.

How is "Uranus" Pronounced?
The planet Uranus is a gorgeous and interesting planet. But its name often leads to laughter and giggles for the way it is pronounced.

Should We Build a Moon Base?
There has been a lot of political talk suggesting that we should build a permanent base on the Moon. Why should we do it, and when?

John H. Glenn, Jr - First American to Orbit Earth
Astronaut Biography - John Herschel Glenn, Jr. The life of John H. Glenn, Jr, Former Astronaut, Former Senator, American Hero. On February 20, 1962, atop an Atlas rocket, he rode into space and piloted the Friendship 7 spacecraft around the globe three times, becoming the first American to orbit the earth. In 1998, he became the oldest person to launch into space.

John H. Glenn, Jr, Former Astronaut, Former Senator, American Hero - First American to Orbit Earth
Astronaut Biography - John Herschel Glenn, Jr. The life of John H. Glenn, Jr, Former Astronaut, Former Senator, American Hero. On February 20, 1962, atop an Atlas rocket, he rode into space and piloted the Friendship 7 spacecraft around the globe three times, becoming the first American to orbit the earth. In 1998, he became the oldest person to launch into space. Page 2.

John H. Glenn, Jr, - Astronaut, Senator, American Hero
Astronaut Biography - John Herschel Glenn, Jr. The life of John H. Glenn, Jr, Former Astronaut, Former Senator, American Hero. On February 20, 1962, atop an Atlas rocket, he rode into space and piloted the Friendship 7 spacecraft around the globe three times, becoming the first American to orbit the earth. In 1998, he became the oldest person to launch into space. Page 3.

John H. Glenn, Jr, - American Hero, Making a Difference
Astronaut Biography - John Herschel Glenn, Jr. The life of John H. Glenn, Jr, Former Astronaut, Former Senator, American Hero. On February 20, 1962, atop an Atlas rocket, he rode into space and piloted the Friendship 7 spacecraft around the globe three times, becoming the first American to orbit the earth. In 1998, he became the oldest person to launch into space. Page 4.

What is Dark Matter?
So what is dark matter? That's a question astronomers want to answer, even as they detect its existence and distribution in the stars and galaxies.

Everything You Need to Know about the Planet Venus
Venus, the second planet from the Sun, is often referred to as Earth's Sister. While similar in size to Earth, this world is very different from our home planet.

Mae Jemison: First African-American Woman Astronaut
Dr. Mae Jemison was the first African-American female astronaut, and her career has led her to near-Earth orbit, and as part of the fictional Star Trek universe.

Dr. Mae Jemison - First African American Female Astronaut
Brief biography of Dr. Mae Jemison, the first African American female astronaut in space. Page 2.

Basic Information about the Sun
Want to know more about our star? Here are some facts, figures, and data about the nearest star to us -- and the provider of all heat and light in the solar system.

The Crab Nebula Supernova Remnant
Ever heard of the Crab Nebula? It is what's left over after a massive star explodes and scatters its gases and dust to space.

Scientists Detect Gravitational Ripples in Space-Time
Merging black holes created gravitational waves 1.3 billion years ago. The signal of those waves was detected on Earth in late 2015. This discovery proves that such waves DO exist.

A Hungry Black Hole Sends a Beam Across Space
A long, strong beam of material jetting out from the heart of the galaxy Pictor A is giving astronomers a good look at the dynamic region around a supermassive black hole.

The Loss of Columbia
The loss of the Columbia space shuttle was the second shuttle tragedy in U.S. history.

Space Chimps - Primates in Space - History of Space Chimps
Before humans could go to space, scientists tested space flight hardware using monkeys, chimps and occasionally bunch of mice. Learn more about these first space explorers. Page 2.

A History of Space Chimps, Primates
Before humans could go to space, scientists tested space flight hardware using monkeys, chimps and occasionally bunch of mice. Learn more about these first space explorers.

Pictures of Mars - Cerberus
The large dark area left of center is named Cerberus. The arcuate markings in the upper right are in the Amazonis plains and may be sand drifts. The Elysium volcano, a yellow area north of Cerberus, has several channels radiating from its flanks. The three bright spots, upper left, are volcanoes partially veiled by thin clouds. Page 5.

Pictures of Mars - Frost Covered Dunes
Dunes in Chasma Boreale, a giant trough in the north polar cap, were captured in this image taken by the Mars Global Surveyor in September 1998. Dark sand emerges from beneath a veneer of bright frost left over from the northern winter that ended in July, 1998.

Pictures of Mars - Lander 2 Site
Visible in the lower right corner of the image is the lander's footpad. The shroud that protected the soil collector head during the lander's descent lies a short distance from the footpad. The rounded rock in the center foreground is about 20 cm (8 in) wide. The angular rock to the left and further back is about 1.5 m (5 ft) across. Notice the two trenches dug in the regolith by the sampler arm. Page 9.

Pictures of Mars - Liquid Water on Mars
A series of troughs and layered mesas in the Gorgonum Chaos region of the Martian southern hemisphere appears in the chaotic terrain. Gullies proposed to have been formed by seeping ground water emanate from a specific layer near the tops of trough walls, particularly on south-facing slopes. Such a layer is called an aquifer, and this one appears to be present less than a few hundred meters (few hundred yards) beneath the surface in this region. Page 8.

Pictures of Mars - Martian Crater
This crater on northern Elysium Planitia is a little more than twice the diameter of the famous Meteor Crater in Arizona. It was formed by the impact and subsequent explosion of a meteorite. The image was taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard the Mars Global Surveyor in July, 1998. Page 2.

Pictures of Mars - View from Lander 1
This image was taken at the Viking Lander 1 site, using camera 2. The lander's footpad is visible in the lower right. This scene shows a rocky field with trenches in the foreground (just below center) dug by the sampler arm. Patches of drift material and possibly bedrock are visible further from the Lander. Page 10.

Pictures of Mars - View of Chimp
This view of the rock

Pictures of Mars - West Candor Chasma
This oblique view of Candor Chasma in Valles Marineris on Mars was mosaicked from high resolution black and white images acquired by Viking 1, and color images by Viking 2. The geomorphology is shaped by tectonics, landslides, wind, and perhaps by water and volcanism. Page 7.

Pictures of Mars - Western Tithonium Chasma - Ius Chasma
This Mars Global Surveyor image shows the discovery of light and dark layers in the rock outcrops of the canyon walls. This shear mountain cliff, over 1000 m (3200 ft) tall, is only one of several outcrops that, together, indicate layering within almost the entire depth of the canyon. This type of bedrock layering has never been seen before in Valles Marineris. Such layering suggests that a deep sequence of sedimentary strata may underlie much of the Martian surface. Page 4.

Pictures of Mars - Wind Action on Martian Sand Dunes
Key observations that appear to indicate that some Martian dunes are active today were captured by the Mars Global Surveyor in this August, 1998 image. The dark spots on these north polar dunes were areas where the seasonal frost coating had been removed--either by sublimation or by wind erosion. The dark material was presumed to be the sediment that composes the dunes. These dark streaks are interpreted to be the result of wind action. Page 6.

Pictures of Mars - Canyon and Volcanoes
This mosaic of Mars is similar to the view you would see from a spacecraft. The center of the scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 4000 km (2486 mi) long and up to 7 km (5 mi) deep. It extends from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben on the west side, to the chaotic terrain on the east side. Many ancient river channels begin from the chaotic terrain and north-central canyons and run north. Three Tharsis volcanoes are visible to the west (dark red spots). Page 13.

Pictures of Mars - Enormous Volcano
This 3-dimensional image was created from several images of Olympus Mons. Each image was taken from a different spacecraft position and combined with a computer model of the surface topography to generate a perspective view. The final mosaic shows Olympus as it would be seen from the northeast. It's possible that volcanoes of such magnitude were able to form on Mars because the hot volcanic regions in the mantle remained fixed relative to the surface for hundreds of millions of years. Page 24.

Pictures of Mars - Lander 1 Site
Big Joe, the large rock just left of center is about 2 m (7 ft) wide. The top of the rock is covered with red soil. Those portions of the rock not covered are similar in color to basaltic rocks on Earth. This rock may be a fragment of a lava flow that was later ejected by an impact crater. The red color of the rocks and soil is due to an abundance of oxidized iron in the eroded material. Page 11.

Pictures of Mars - MPF Color Panorama
This Mars Pathfinder panorama captures different regions imaged at various times over three Martian days to acquire consistent lighting and shadow conditions. On the horizon, the

Pictures of Mars - Mars Daily Global Image
Twelve orbits a day provided the Mars Global Surveyor MOC wide angle cameras a global snapshot of weather patterns across the planet in April, 1999. Here, bluish-white water ice clouds hang above the Tharsis volcanoes. This computer generated image was created by wrapping a global map onto a sphere. The center of this sphere is 15 degrees North latitude, 90 degrees West longitude. This perspective rotates the south pole (which has no data coverage in the original map) away from our field of view. Page 27.

Pictures of Mars - Mars Pathfinder at Noon
This true color image of the Pathfinder landing site shows the Martian surface as yellowish brown with only subtle variations. These colors are identical to the measured colors of the Viking landing sites. This image was taken near local noon on the tenth Martian day of the Mars Pathfinder mission. Page 16.

Pictures of Mars - Martian Solar Eclipses
The shadow of the Martian moon, Phobos, is captured here by the Mars Global Surveyor wide angle camera. Frequent solar eclipses are caused by the passage of Phobos between Mars and the Sun. The shadow of Phobos, the elliptical feature at the center of each frame, is seen as it was cast upon western Xanthe Terra. Martian eclipses are thousands of times more common than eclipses on Earth, occurring a few times a day whenever Phobos passes over the planet's sunlit side. Page 28.

Pictures of Mars - Ophir Chasma
This computer-generated perspective combines images and a surface topography model. The region shown is Ophir Chasma, part of the enormous Valles Marineris canyon system in the central equatorial region. This image shows slumping along the wall of the canyon. The region covered is about 200 km (124 mi) on a side. The depth of the canyon is about 6 km (4 mi). Page 22.

Pictures of Mars - Pooh Bear & Mermaid Dune
The large rock dubbed

Pictures of Mars - Rover and Terrain
The Sojourner rover and undeployed ramps onboard the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft can be seen in this image, by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) taken on July 4, 1997. The microrover Sojourner is latched to the petal, and has not yet been deployed. The ramps are a pair of deployable metal reels that provide a track for the rover as it slowly rolls off the lander, over the spacecraft's deflated airbags, and onto the surface of Mars. Page 14.

Pictures of Mars - Schiaparelli
This mosaic of Mars is composed of about 100 Viking Orbiter images. The images were acquired in 1980 during mid-northern summer on Mars. Crater Schiaparelli, left of center, is 461 km (277 mi) in diameter. The dark streaks with bright margins emanating from craters in the Oxia Palus region, in the upper left, are caused by erosion and deposition by the wind. Bright white areas to the south, including the Hellas impact basin at extreme lower right, are covered by carbon dioxide frost. Page 19.

Pictures of Mars - Sediment History
This Mars Global Surveyor image demonstrates the theme of erosion, deposition, and then more erosion. The circular feature is interpreted to be an ancient impact crater. This crater indicates that a layered rock surface was exposed to the atmosphere for some period of time before the next layer of material (the bright, almost white ridged rock that covers most of the upper half of this picture) was deposited. Further erosion created the ridge and gully pattern. Page 18.

Pictures of Mars - Shield Volcano
Olympus Mons is the largest volcano on Mars. This shield volcano, similar to volcanoes in Hawaii, measures 624 km (374 mi) in diameter by 25 km (16 mi) high. It is 100 times larger than Mauna Loa on Earth. Located on the Tharsis Plateau near the equator, Olympus Mons is bordered by an escarpment. The caldera in the center is 80 km (50 mi) wide and contains multiple circular, overlapping collapse craters created by different volcanic events. Page 23.

Pictures of Mars - Sojourner Rover
This mosaic was acquired by the Mars Pathfinder Imager during the late Martian afternoon as part of the 'insurance panorama' and shows the newly deployed rover sitting on the Martian surface. The insurance panorama was designed as 'insurance' against camera failure upon deployment. Since the camera deployment was successful, the insurance panorama was downlinked to Earth several weeks later. Page 17.

Pictures of Mars - South Candor Chasma
This view of Candor Chasma in Valles Marineris on Mars is from the north, looking south. The image is a mosaic made from images acquired by both of the Viking Orbiters. Page 15.

Pictures of Mars - South Pole
This mosaic of Viking Orbiter frames shows the South Polar Cap of Mars. The polar cap is composed of water and carbon dioxide ice. The ice appears reddish due to dust that has been incorporated into the cap. Page 25.

Pictures of Mars - Valles Marineris
Nearly half of the Valles Marineris canyon system is visible here. The entire system extends over 4000 km (2490 mi), covering about one fifth the circumference of Mars. Some parts of the canyon run as deep as 7 km (4 mi) and as wide as 200 km (125 mi). Compared to Valles Marineris, the Grand Canyon on Earth seems quite small at 446 km (277 mi) long, 30 km (18 mi) wide and 1.6 km (1 mi) deep. Page 26.

Pictures of Mars - View from Lander 2
This Viking Lander 2 site has more and larger blocks of stone than are seen at the Viking Lander 1 site. The stones are probably ejecta from impact craters near the Lander 2 site. Many of the rocks are angular and are thought to be only slightly altered by the wind and other forms of erosion. Drifts of sand and dust are smaller and less noticeable at the Lander 2 site. The overall red coloring of the Martian terrain is due to the presence of oxidized iron in the regolith. Page 12.

Mars Astronomy Pictures Gallery - Astronomy Pictures of Mars - The Red Planet
Named for the Roman god of War, Mars probably got this name due to its red color. It is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet. The name of the month March derives from Mars. Known since prehistoric times, Mars is still a favorite of choice for human exploration. The density of Mars is about 30 percent less than that of Earth (3.94 g/cm3 vs. 5.52 g/cm3).

Mars Astronomy Pictures Gallery - Astronomy Pictures of Mars - The Red Planet
Named for the Roman god of War, Mars probably got this name due to its red color. It is sometimes referred to as the Red Planet. The name of the month March derives from Mars. Known since prehistoric times, Mars is still a favorite of choice for human exploration. The density of Mars is about 30 percent less than that of Earth (3.94 g/cm3 vs. 5.52 g/cm3).

See the Moon, Mars, and Asteroids from Earth
Astronomy 101 - Solar System - Inner Solar System - Lesson 9: Continuing Our Visit Close To Home. Page 2.

Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) - A SAFER Way to Walk in Space - Jet Backpack for Space Walks
One of the ways NASA is making space walks safer is with a device called Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER). Essentially a

Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) - A SAFER Way to Walk in Space - Jet Backpack for Space Walks
One of the ways NASA is making space walks safer is with a device called Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER). Essentially a