Space/Astronomy Sitemap - Page 5 2016-09-26

Space & Astronomy Magazines
Now, stay informed with great astronomy magazines which deal with astronomy & astronomers as well as space exploration from the early days into the future. Discover new space and astronomy magazines to bring you the news that interests you. Find out which astronomy magazines are best. Learn how to contribute and subscribe to astronomy magazines.

Antenna - Space and Astronomy Definition - Online Dictionary and Glossary Definition of Antenna
Antenna - from an ever growing glossary of space and astronomy definitions. Find the definitions for Antenna and all your space and astronomy related words in this online dictionary - glossary.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - Female Astronauts
Astronauts Dr. N. Jan Davis (left) and Dr. Mae C. Jemison (right) were mission specialists on board the STS-47 mission. Born on November 1, 1953 in Cocoa Beach, Florida, Dr. N. Jan Davis received a Master degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1983 followed by a Doctorate in Engineering from the University of Alabama in Huntsville in 1985. In 1979 she joined NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an aerospace engineer.

Doctor Mae Jemison Pictures Gallery
Chemical engineer, scientist, physician, teacher and astronaut, Dr. Mae Jemison has a wide range of experience in technology, engineering, and medical research. In addition to her extensive background in science, she is well-versed in African and African-American Studies, speaks fluent Russian, Japanese, and Swahili, as well as English and is trained in dance and choreography. In completing her first space flight, Dr. Mae Jemison was the first African-American woman in space.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-47 Onboard Photo
Jan Davis and Mae Jemison working on experiments.. Page 12.

Pictures of Stars - Cepheid Variable Star in Galaxy M100
This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a region of the galaxy M100 shows a class of pulsating star called a Cepheid Variable. Though rare, these stars are reliable distance indicators to galaxies. Based on the Hubble observation, the distance to M100 has been measured accurately as 56 million light-years (+/- 6 million light-years), making it the farthest object where intergalactic distances have been determined precisely. Page 3.

Pluto Picture - Map of Pluto's Surface
This is the first image-based surface map of the solar system's most remote planet, Pluto. This map was assembled by computer image processing software from four separate images of Pluto's disk taken with the European Space Agency's (ESA) Faint Object Camera (FOC) aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble imaged nearly the entire surface, as Pluto rotated on its axis in late June and early July 1994. Page 4.

Pluto Picture - The Surface of Pluto
The never-before-seen surface of the distant planet Pluto is resolved in these NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures, taken with the European Space Agency's (ESA) Faint Object Camera (FOC) aboard Hubble. Discovered in 1930, Pluto has always appeared as nothing more than a dot of light in even the largest Earth-based telescopes because Pluto's disk is much smaller than can be resolved from beneath the Earth's turbulent atmosphere. Page 11.

Pictures of Stars - Cataclysmic Variable Star
This is an illustration of a class of double star called a cataclysmic variable. The system consists of a white dwarf star - a dense, burned-out star that has collapsed to the size of Earth and a companion that is a normal star, similar to but smaller than the Sun. The stars are so close together gas flows from the normal star onto the dwarf where it swirls into a pancake-shaped disk. When the disk of gas periodically collapses onto the white dwarf, it unleashes a burst of kinetic energy. Page 2.

Pictures of Stars - Core of the Globular Cluster NGC 6624
This is a comparison of pictures of the core of the globular cluster NGC 6624, as imaged with the European Space Agency's Faint Object Camera aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. This comparison image demonstrates that Hubble's high resolution and ultraviolet sensitivity allow astronomers to pick out the faint blue counterpart to an X-ray burster buried in the globular cluster. (An X-ray burster is a class of unusual double star that is a source of violent bursts of X-rays.). Page 4.

Pictures of Stars - Cygnus Loop: Blast Wave from a Stellar Time-Bomb
High speed gas from a supernova explosion slams into dark cooler clouds of interstellar material. Shocked and heated by this tidal wave of energy, the clouds glow in bright, neon-like colors. (Image Released: February 1995). Page 5.

Pictures of Stars - HST Observations of the Supernova in M51
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has returned the most detailed images ever of supernova 1994I which is in the

Pictures of Stars - Hubble Finds One of the Smallest Stars in the Universe
This NASA Hubble Space Telescope picture resolves, for the first time, one of the smallest stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Called Gliese 623b or Gl623b, the diminutive star (right of center) is ten times less massive than the Sun and 60,000 times fainter. (If it were as far away as the Sun, it would be only eight times brighter than the full Moon). Page 7.

Pictures of Stars - Hubble Observes a Star On the Brink of Destruction
A NASA Hubble Space Telescope

Pictures of Stars - Hubble Sees Changes in Gas Shell around Nova Cygni 1992
The European Space Agency's ESA Faint Object Camera utilizing the corrective optics provided by NASA's COSTAR (Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement), has given astronomers their best look yet at a rapidly ballooning bubble of gas blasted off a star. The shell surrounds Nova Cygni 1992, which erupted on February 19, 1992. A nova is a thermonuclear explosion that occurs on the surface of a white dwarf star in a double star system. Page 9.

Pictures of Stars - Hubble Spies a Really Cool Star
This is a Hubble Space Telescope picture of one of the least massive and coolest stars even seen (upper right). It is a diminutive companion to the K dwarf star called GL 105A (also known as HD 16160) seen at lower left. The binary pair is located 27 light-years away in the constellation Cetus. Based on the Hubble observation, astronomers calculate that the companion, called GL 105C, is 25,000 times fainter than GL 105A in visible light. Page 10.

Pictures of Stars - Hubble Uncovers Faint Stars in the Core of Globular Cluster 47 Tucane
These comparison images of the core of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae were taken with the COSTAR Corrected Faint Object Camera to show the improvement In performance when compared to images taken with the uncorrected camera. The pre-COSTAR image was taken on 27 October 1993 using the F/96 mode. The COSTAR-corrected image was taken on l0th January 1994 reveals stellar images that are crisp and clean, and stellar magnitudes and colors can be accurately measured. Page 11.

Pictures of Stars - Hubble's Search for Faint Field Stars in Galactic Halo
A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a randomly selected area of sky taken to search for faint red stars that might constitute dark matter in our Milky Way Galaxy. (Dark matter is material of an unknown type that makes up most of the mass of our galaxy). If the dark matter in our Galaxy was made of faint red stars — as many scientists have previously conjectured — then about 38 such stars should have been visible in this HST image. Page 12.

Pictures of Stars - Merger of Two White Dwarf Stars
This artist's illustration shows three steps in the merger of a pair of white dwarf stars. The illustration depicts how planets may form around massive white dwarfs and is based upon theoretical studies by astronomers Mario Livio, Jim Pringle, and Rex Saffer of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD. Page 13.

Pictures of Stars - Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud
This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. Page 14.

Pictures of Stars - R Aquarii - A Nearby Exploding Star
Hubble Space Telescope has peered into the inner core of the nearby so-called

Pictures of Stars - The Interior Workings of Stellar Dynamo Gliese 752
Before the Hubble observation of Gliese 752, astronomers thought magnetic fields in stars required the same dynamo process which creates magnetic fields on the Sun. In the classic solar model heat generated by nuclear fusion reactions at the star's center escapes through a radiative zone just outside the core. The heat travels from the radiative core to the star's surface through a convection zone. In this region, heat bubbles to the surface by motions similar to boiling in a pot of water. Page 16.

Pictures of Stars - The Resolving Power of the Hubble Space Telescope
The image on the right is a portion of the first image returned by the Wide Field Planetary Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. On the left is a ground based image of the same area of the sky. The object shown in these images is a double star: the pair of stars is well separated in the HST image but blurred together in the ground based image. Page 17.

Pluto Picture - NASA's Hubble Reveals Possible New Moons Around Pluto
Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to view the ninth planet in our solar system, astronomers discovered Pluto may have not one, but three moons. If confirmed, the discovery of the two new moons could offer insights into the nature and evolution of the Pluto system; Kuiper Belt Objects with satellite systems; and the early Kuiper Belt. The Kuiper Belt is a vast region of icy, rocky bodies beyond Neptune's orbit. Page 5.

Pluto Picture - Pluto & Charon Eclipse a Triple Star
Occasionally, a planet in our Solar System will pass in front of a bright star. Since stars and planets take up so little space on the sky, such events are quite rare. Two months ago, however, Pluto and its large moon Charon passed in front of a comparatively bright triple star system known as P126. By noting how P126 A dimmed, the event was useful for studying Pluto's relatively unknown atmosphere. Page 7.

Pluto Picture - Pluto Not Yet Explored
Cold, distant, Pluto is the only planet in our Solar System which has not been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. The story goes that the legend

Pluto Picture - Pluto in True Color
Pluto is mostly brown. This picture captures the true colors of Pluto as well as the highest surface resolution so far recovered. No spacecraft has yet visited this most distant planet in our Solar System. The above map was created by tracking brightness changes from Earth of Pluto during times when it was being partially eclipsed by its moon Charon. The map therefore shows the hemisphere of Pluto that faces Charon. Page 8.

Pluto Picture - Pluto
An artist's conception of Pluto and its moon Charon.. Page 6.

Pluto Picture - Sedna Size Comparisons
The artist's rendition shows the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed

Earth Picture - Pacific Ocean Surface Winds from QuikScat
This image shows wind speeds and direction in the Pacific Ocean on August 1, 1999, gathered by the Seawinds radar instrument flying onboard the QuikScat satellite. - This image was released in conjunction with:PIA01347. The caption released for these images mostly details the Pacific region. - The intense surface winds of Typhoon Olga, represented by yellow spirals, can be seen moving around South Korea in the China Sea. Page 7.

Earth Picture - Atlantic Ocean Surface Winds from QuikScat
This image shows wind speeds and direction in the Atlantic Ocean on August 1, 1999, gathered by the Seawinds radar instrument flying onboard the QuikScat satellite. - This image was released in conjunction with: PIA01346. Please refer to that image for more details about the Pacific region. - The intense surface winds of Typhoon Olga, represented by yellow spirals, can be seen moving around South Korea in the China Sea. Page 27.

Distant Earth and Moon
This picture of the Earth and Moon in a single frame, the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft, was recorded September 18, 1977, by NASAs Voyager 1 when it was 11.66 million km (7.25 million miles) from Earth. The moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Page 3.

Earth Picture - Distant Earth and Moon
This picture of the Earth and Moon in a single frame, the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft, was recorded September 18, 1977, by NASAs Voyager 1 when it was 11.66 million km (7.25 million miles) from Earth. The moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. - In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Page 26.

Earth Picture - Earth from Apollo 8
This is how the Earth looked as photographed from a point near the Moon by the Apollo 8 astronauts. The Earth fills less than one percent of the frame exposed through 80mm lens. North is approximately vertical. Kinda lonely, isn't it?. Page 18.

Earth Picture - Earthrise - Apollo 8
This view of the rising Earth greeted the Apollo 8 astronauts as they came from behind the Moon after the lunar orbit insertion burn. Earth is about five degrees above the horizon in the photo. The unnamed surface features in the foreground are near the eastern limb of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The lunar horizon is approximately 780 kilometers from the spacecraft. Width of the photographed area at the horizon is about 175 kilometers. Page 16.

Earth Picture - Earthrise Over Plaskett Crater
The above is a view from Clementine of the full Earth over the north pole of the Moon. The crater with a central peak in the foreground is Plaskett (820N, 1740E; 110 kilometers in diameter). On Earth, Africa is clearly visible and nearly cloud free.. Page 15.

Earth Picture - First Picture of the Earth and Moon in a Single Frame
This picture of the Earth and Moon in a single frame, the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft, was recorded September 18, 1977, but NASAs Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Page 14.

Earth Picture - First View of Earth from Moon
The world's first view of Earth taken by a spacecraft from the vicinity of the Moon. - The photo was transmitted to Earth by the United States Lunar Orbiter I and received at the NASA tracking station at Robledo De Chavela near Madrid, Spain. This crescent of the Earth was photographed August 23, 1966 at 16:35 GMT when the spacecraft was on its 16th orbit and just about to pass behind the Moon.. Page 13.

Earth Picture - Planet Earth
Planet Earth 07/18/1995. Space / Astronomy. Page 6.

Earth Picture - Planet Earth
Planet Earth 07/18/1995. Space / Astronomy. Page 5.

Earth Picture - Planet Earth
Planet Earth 07/18/1995. Space / Astronomy. Page 4.

Earth Picture - SeaWinds - Oceans, Land, Polar Regions
The SeaWinds scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite makes global radar measurements -- day and night, in clear sky and through clouds. The radar data over the oceans provide scientists and weather forecasters with information on surface wind speed and direction. Scientists also use the radar measurements directly to learn about changes in vegetation and ice extent over land and polar regions. Page 38.

Earth Picture - SeaWinds Global Coverage with Detail of Hurricane Floyd
The distribution of ocean surface winds over the Atlantic Ocean, based on September 1999 data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the Quikscat satellite, shows wind direction (white streamlines) at a resolution of 25 kilometers (15.5 miles), superimposed on the color image indicating wind speed. - Over the ocean, the strong (seen in violet) trade winds blow steadily from the cooler subtropical oceans to warm waters just north of the equator. Page 37.

Earth Picture - The Americas and Hurricane Andrew
Image taken on August 25, 1992 by NOAA GOES-7 weather satellite of the Americas and Hurricane Andrew as it makes landfall on the Louisiana coast. . Page 35.

Earth Picture - The Earth & Moon
During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. The Galileo spacecraft took the images in 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The image shows a partial view of the Earth centered on the Pacific Ocean about latitude 20 degrees south. Page 33.

Earth Picture - The Earth-Moon System
Eight days after its final encounter with the Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back and captured this remarkable view of the Earth and Moon. The image was taken from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles). - The picture was constructed from images taken through the violet, red, and 1.0-micron infrared filters. Page 31.

Earth Picture - The Earth and Moon
During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. The Galileo spacecraft took the images in 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The image shows a partial view of the Earth centered on the Pacific Ocean about latitude 20 degrees south. Page 32.

Earth Picture - Earth - full disk view of Africa
This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. Africa stretches from the center to the top of the picture with the Arabian Peninsula off to its right. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is at the bottom. Page 24.

Earth Picture - Earth and Moon as viewed by Mariner 10
Mariner 10 was launched on November 3, 1973, 12:45 am PST, from Cape Canaveral on an Atlas/Centaur rocket (a reconditioned Intercontinental Ballistic Missile - ICBM). Within 12 hours of launch the twin cameras were turned on and several hundred pictures of both the Earth and the Moon were acquired over the following days. Page 20.

Earth Picture - Global View of the Arctic Ocean
NASA researchers have new insights into the mysteries of Arctic sea ice, thanks to the unique abilities of Canada's Radarsat satellite. The Arctic is the smallest of the world's four oceans, but it may play a large role in helping scientists monitor Earth's climate shifts. - Using Radarsat's special sensors to take images at night and to peer through clouds, NASA researchers can now see the complete ice cover of the Arctic. Page 9.

Earth Picture - Adios Earth
Well on its way to the Red Planet, Europe's Mars Express snapped this shot of Earth from a distance of about 8 million km (5 million miles). . Page 28.

Earth Picture - Earth - Departing Image by Galileo
This color image of the Earth was taken by the Galileo spacecraft on December 11 as it departed on its 3-year flight to Jupiter, about 2 1/2 days after the second Earth flyby. The distance to Earth is about 1.9 million kilometers (1.2 million miles). Antarctica is visible at the bottom of the image, and dawn is rising over the Pacific Ocean.. Page 25.

Earth Picture - Earth - India and Australia
This color image of the Earth was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.5 million miles from the Earth. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. India is near the top of the picture, and Australia is to the right of center. The white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Pacific, lower right. Page 23.

Earth Picture - Earth - Moon Conjunction
On December 16, 1992, 8 days after its encounter with Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles) to capture this remarkable view of the Moon in orbit about Earth. The composite photograph was constructed from images taken through visible (violet, red) and near-infrared (1.0-micron) filters. The Moon is in the foreground; its orbital path is from left to right. Page 22.

Earth Picture - Earth - Pacific Ocean
This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Page 21.

Earth From Mars
This is the first image ever taken of Earth from the surface of a planet beyond the Moon. It was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit one hour before sunrise on the 63rd Martian day, or sol, of its mission. The image is a mosaic of images taken by the rover's navigation camera showing a broad view of the sky, and an image taken by the rover's panoramic camera of Earth. The contrast in the panoramic camera image was increased two times to make Earth easier to see. Page 2.

Earth Picture - Earth Globe - Discover this Picture of the Globe
Earth Globe 11/20/1998. Space / Astronomy. Page 17.

Earth Picture - Earth and Moon as viewed from Mars
This is the first image of Earth ever taken from another planet that actually shows our home as a planetary disk. Because Earth and the Moon are closer to the Sun than Mars, they exhibit phases, just as the Moon, Venus, and Mercury do when viewed from Earth. As seen from Mars by MGS on 8 May 2003 at 13:00 GMT (6:00 AM PDT), Earth and the Moon appeared in the evening sky. Page 19.

Earth Picture - Full Earth
View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the Moon. This translunar coast photograph extends from the Mediterranean Sea area to the Antarctica South polar ice cap. This is the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the South polar ice cap. Note the heavy cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. Almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible.. Page 12.

Earth Picture - Global Images of Earth
Global images of Earth from Galileo. In each frame, the continent of Antarctica is visible at the bottom of the globe. South America may be seen in the first frame (top left), the great Pacific Ocean in the second (bottom left), India at the top and Australia to the right in the third (top right), and Africa in the fourth (bottom right). Page 11.

Earth Picture - Global View of Earth in the Near-Infrared
This near-infrared photograph of the Earth was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 6:07 a.m. PST on Dec. 11, 1990, at a range of about 1.32 million miles. The camera used light with a wavelength of 1 micron, which easily penetrates atmospheric hazes and enhances the brightness of land surfaces. South America is prominent near the center; at the top, the East Coast of the United States, including Florida, is visible. The West Coast of Africa is visible on the horizon at right.. Page 10.

Earth Picture - Home
This image of the Earth is one of 60 frames taken by the Voyager 1 spacecraft on Feb. 14, 1990 from a distance of approximately 4 billion miles and about 32 degrees above the ecliptic plane. - This image the Earth is a mere point of light, a crescent only 0.12 pixel in size. Our planet was caught in the center of one of the scattered light rays resulting from taking the image so close to the sun.. Page 8.

Earth Picture - South Polar Projection of Earth
This view of the Earth shows a wonderfully unique but physically impossible view of the southern hemisphere and Antarctica. While a spacecraft could find itself directly over the Earth's pole, roughly half of the image should be in darkness! This view was created by mosaicing together several images taken by Galileo over a 24 hour period and projecting them as they would be seen from above the pole. Page 36.

Earth Picture - The Americas and Hurricane Andrew
Image taken on August 25, 1992 by NOAA GOES-7 of the Americas and Hurricane Andrew.. Page 34.

Earth Picture - Where is La Niña?
Since the weak El Niño event of winter of 2002, the equatorial Pacific has cooled and oceanographers have been on a La Niña

Earth Picture - World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height
These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.). Page 29.

Mars - Pictures and Astronomy Facts - Solar System Planetary Astronomical Data and Images of Mars
Discover Mars. Space / Astronomy.

Space Shuttle Main Engines
Space Shuttle Main Engines being installed on Discovery at the Orbiter Processing Facility at NASA's Kenney Space Center. The Space Shuttle Main Engines provide part of the thrust that sends the Shuttle into orbit. Page 6.

Space Shuttle Orbiter Cutaway
Cutaway detail showing the Parts of the Orbiter. Page 3.

Launch of Sputnik 1
The world, especially the US, was shocked, when on October 4, 1957, the USSR launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Sputnik 1 was launched from Baikonur, USSR on October 4, 1957. Page 8.

Sergey Korolev
Sergey Korolev, founder of the Soviet space program, in July 1954 with a dog that just returned to Earth after a lob to an altitude of 100 kilometers on an R-1D scientific rocket. In 1951, the Soviet Union became the first country to safely recover a living organism after a flight in space. In 1957, a dog, Layka, became the first living organism to reach Earth's orbit. Traveling aboard Sputnik 2, rising temperatures due to thermal control problems killed Layka on the fourth day of the mission. Page 2.

Sputnik 1 - Exploded View
Sputnik 1 in much more detail. The name comes from a Russian word for

Sputnik 1
Sputnik was the opening shot in the space race between the United States and the forme Soviet Union. the basketball-sized spacecraft was the world's first artificial satellite. It orbited the Earth sending back a beeping signal for 23 days. Sputnik created shockwaves back on Earth. It was an amazing technical achievement followed only a month later by the stunning launch of Sputnik II, which carried the first living thing - Laika the dog - into space. Page 9.

Sputnik 1 Assembly
The Sputnik 1 (PS-1) satellite is shown here on a rigging truck in the assembly shop in the fall of 1957 as a technician puts finishing touches on it. When the development of the first advanced scientific satellite, Object D, proved to be more difficult than expected, the Soviets decided to launch a simpler, smaller satellite. PS-1, or Sputnik 1, began development in November 1956. Page 5.

Sputnik 1 Mockup
Sputnik was about the size of a basketball. It weighed only 83 kg (183 pounds). Sputnik orbited the Earth every 98 minutes sending back a beeping signal for 23 days. Sputnik's designer, Sergei Korolev, went on to head Russia's Vostok, Voskhod, Zond and Cosmo programs. NASA was created as a direct result of the Sputnik surprise. Page 7.

The State Commission for the Sputnik Satellite
The State Commission was a temporary ad-hoc body comprised of various representatives of the Soviet military, industry, and the design bureaus. It remained in existence only during the testing phase of Sputnik, serving as a primary conduit for communication with party leaders on the state of the program. Page 3.

Pictures of Lisa Nowak - Commander Kelly and Mission Specialist Nowak
STS-118 Commander Scott Kelly (left) and Mission Specialist Lisa Nowak look over equipment in the Space Station Processing Facility Facility during Crew Equipment Interface Test activities. The mission to the International Space Station will be delivering the third starboard truss segment, the ITS S5, which will be attached to the station, and a SPACEHAB Single Cargo Module with supplies and equipment. Page 8.

Pictures of Lisa Nowak - STS-118 Mission Specialist Lisa Nowak
STS-118 Mission Specialist Lisa Nowak looks at equipment in the Space Station Processing Facility. She and other crew members are at KSC to become familiar with equipment for their mission. The mission will be delivering the third starboard truss segment, the ITS S5, to the International Space Station, and a SPACEHAB Single Cargo Module with supplies and equipment. . Page 5.

Pictures of Lisa Nowak - STS-121 Crew Members Look at Equipment
At Astrotech Space Operations in Titusville, Fla., STS-121 crew members look at equipment. From left are Pilot Mark Kelly, Mission Specialist Lisa Nowak, Mission Commander Steven Lindsey and Mission Specialist Stephanie Wilson. The STS-121 crew is at KSC to take part in Crew Equipment Interface Test activities, which provide hands-on experience with equipment they will use on-orbit.. Page 4.

Announcement of Sputnik
Annoucement of intention to launch an earth satellite during the IGY by the Soviets. At the Legation of the USSR, Copenhagen, Denmark, during the 6th IAF, August 1955, shortly after the Americans announced their intentions to launch a satellite. Left to right: Vereschetin, Mr. Sannikov-Soviet State Security; Professor Kyrill F. Ogorodikov, Astronomy, Leningrad University; Leonid Ivanovich Sedov, Specialist in mechanics, USSR Academy of Sciences.. Page 6.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Launch views of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981
Launch views of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981. In these views, Columbia is past the scaffolding and headed for the sky.. Page 7.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Launch views of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981
Launch views of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981. In these views, Columbia is past the scaffolding and headed for the sky.. Page 8.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Offical portrait of STS-1 crew members Crippen and Young
Offical portrait of STS-1 crew members Robert L. Crippen and John W. Young posing in ejection escape suits (EES) with small model of space shuttle.. Page 11.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Offical portrait of STS-1 crew member John W. Young
Offical portrait of STS-1 crew member John W. Young posing in ejection escape suit (EES) holding helmet.. Page 12.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Offical portrait of STS-1 crew member Robert L. Crippen
Offical portrait of STS-1 crew member Robert L. Crippen posing in ejection escape suit (EES) holding helmet.. Page 13.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - STS 1 Shuttle Columbia firing main engines
Long range view of STS 1 Shuttle Columbia firing main engines prior to launch.. Page 19.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - STS-1 Columbia on pad preparing for Flight Readiness firing
STS-1 Columbia on pad showered with lights in a night time preparation for a Flight Readiness Firing (FRF) at Launch Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center.. Page 20.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Selected frames of the SRB separation during STS-1 launch path
Selected frames of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) separation during STS-1 launch path. Views include scenes taken by a 16mm camera mounted in the umbilical walls of the Columbia's external fuel tanks. View is of the separation of the SRB on the left side at an altitude of 24 nautical miles: separation of the external tank following the shutdown of the vehicle's three main engines: begining of the separation of the SRBs at an altitude of 24 nautical miles. Page 15.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on approach for landing Edwards Air Force Base
The Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia is shown on approach for landing on Rogers dry lake at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California at end of STS-1 flight. A T-38 chase plane leads the way. . Page 16.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia touches down at Edwards Air Force Base
The rear wheels of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia touch down on Rogers dry lake at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California at end of STS-1 flight. . Page 18.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia on the ground at Edwards Air Force Base
This high angle view show the scene at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California soon after the sucessful landing of the Columbia to end STS-1. Service vehicles approach the spacecraft to perform evaluations for safety and egress preparedness.. Page 17.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - View from the front of the Columbia still parked on the Lakebed Runway
View from the front of the Columbia still parked on the Lakebed Runway with deservice trucks connected.. Page 21.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - View of Columbia landing at Edwards AFB, California
Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia with its landing gear in position is seen near touchdown on a dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California.. Page 23.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - View of STS-1 payload bay and aft section
Cargo bay and aft section of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia photographed through the flight deck's aft windows. In the lower right corner is one of the vehicle's radiator panels. Some of the thermal tiles are missing from the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods which flank the vertical stabilizer at left edge of the photograph. Page 24.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Views of STS-1 Prime Crew during classroom session before flight
Views of STS-1 Backup crew Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly during classroom session before flight of Columbia (29617): Prime Crew, backup crew and trainers using overhead projector during classroom session (29618,29620): Prime crew Commander John W. Young and Pilot Robert Crippen during classroom session (29619).. Page 25.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison conduct LBNP experiment in the SLJ module
At the aft end of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module, STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (foreground) readies Rack 9 Automatic Blood Pressure System (ABPS) controls as MS Mae C. Jemison, inside the cylindrical fabric lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device, waits for the LBNP experiment to begin. LBNP device is sealed around Jemison's waist. It is attached to the SLJ floor and has a controller that operates a pump to change the pressure inside. Page 9.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-47 crew poses for portrait after having been named to the SLJ mission
STS-47 crewmembers pose for portrait after having been named to the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) mission scheduled for flight aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) recently named the four to the mission. Posing in front of the flags of the United States (U.S.) and Japan are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, Japanese NASDA Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, MS N. Jan Davis, and MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee. Page 6.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - Glovebox Microscope
Astronaut Mae Jemison using the Glovebox microscope onboard STS-47.. Page 2.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - Group 12 ASCANs Davis and Jemison during zero gravity training aboard KC-135
Group 12, 1987 Astronaut Class, candidates (ASCANs) N. Jan Davis (left) and Mae C. Jemison freefloat during the seconds of microgravity created aboard the KC-135 NASA 930 aircraft's parabolic flight. Davis and Jemison two of the recently-named ASCANs take a familiarization flight aboard the KC-135

Pictures of Mae Jemison - Official portrait of STS-47 Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison in LES
Official portrait of STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Spacelab Japan (SL-J) Mission Specialist Mae C. Jemison wearing launch entry suit (LES) and holding helmet. Jemison is an M.D., a 1987 astronaut candidate, and member of Astronaut Class 12.. Page 4.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-47 Endeavour, OV-105, Official crew portrait
STS-47 Endeavour Official portrait. These seven crewmembers are currently in training for the STS-47 Spacelab J mission. Pictured are Mission Specialist Jerome Apt and Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr; and MS N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Commander Robert L. Gibson, MS Mae C. Jemison, and Japanese Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri. Mohri is representing the National Space Development Agency of Japan. In the background are the flags of the US and Japan. Page 7.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison with LBNP device in SLJ module aboard OV-105
STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (left) and MS Mae C. Jemison prepare the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device for the LBNP experiment in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Displayed on the aft end cone in the background is an Auburn University banner.. Page 8.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-47 MS Jemison extends side hatch mockup CES pole during JSC training
STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison extends crew escape system (CES) pole through a side hatch mockup during launch emergency egress (bailout) training in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. MS Jerome Apt (right) looks on. The crewmembers practiced extending the CES pole prior to donning their launch and entry suits (LESs) and conducting the simulation in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).. Page 10.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-47 MS Jemison works in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module aboard OV-105
STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison appears to be clicking her heels in zero gravity in the center aisle of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Making her first flight in space, Dr. Jemison was joined by five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for eight days of research in support of the SLJ mission, a joint effort between Japan and United States.. Page 11.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - STS-52 MS Jemison, in LES/LEH, during JSC WETF bailout exercise
STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) Tamara E. Jernigan, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), listens to a briefing about water landings during an emergency egress (bailout) training exercise in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Jernigan waits her turn to be dropped into the WETF's 25-ft deep pool which will simulate the ocean during of her water landing.. Page 13.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - Spacelab-J Crew Training: Jan Davis and Mae Jemison
Female astronauts Jan Davis and Mae Jemison undergo training at Marshall's Spacelab-J Crew Training facility.. Page 5.

Pictures of Mae Jemison - Technicians assist STS-47 MS Jemison prior to JSC bailout training
STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, assisted by technicians, adjusts a strap on her launch and entry suit (LES) prior to launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Jemison is making her first flight in space.. Page 14.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Detailed drawing of STS-1 Columbia
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Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - JSC Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) visual system payload bay video image
This space shuttle orbiter payload bay (PLB) video image is used in JSC's Fixed Based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). The image is projected inside the FB-SMS crew compartment during mission simulation training. The FB-SMS is located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.. Page 4.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Astronaut John W. Young egresses the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia
Astronaut John W. Young egresses the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia after landing on Rogers dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base. Approacing the orbiter at right is Dr. Craig L. Fischer, head of medical operations at JSC.. Page 3.

Pictures from STS-1 First Space Shuttle Mission - Launch view of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981
Launch view of the Columbia for the STS-1 mission, April 12, 1981. View include main engine ignition on Columbia (30498): Columbia begins its liftoff (30499-500,30503): close-up view of orbiter on its solid rocket booster (30501): close-up of tail end of orbiter as solid rocket boosters ignite (30502): .. Page 5.

Pictures of the Star Sirius - The Dog Star, Sirius, and its Tiny Companion
This Hubble Space Telescope image shows Sirius A, the brightest star in our nighttime sky, along with its faint, tiny stellar companion, Sirius B. Astronomers overexposed the image of Sirius A [at center] so that the dim Sirius B [tiny dot at lower left] could be seen. The cross-shaped diffraction spikes and concentric rings around Sirius A, and the small ring around Sirius B, are artifacts produced within the telescope's imaging system. The two stars revolve around each other every 50 years. Page 3.

Astronomy/Space Blogs Word Search Puzzle
Astronomy/Space Blogs Word Search Puzzle. Page 3.

Big Bang Theory Word Search Puzzle
The Big Bang Theory is the dominant scientific theory about the origin of the universe. According to the big bang, the universe was created sometime between 10 billion and 20 billion years ago from a cosmic explosion that hurled matter and in all directions. In 1927, the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître was the first to propose that the universe began with the explosion of a primeval atom. Page 7.

Black History Month Word Search Puzzle
Black History Month happens each year in February. African-Americans have played a major role in the history of the United States of America and have much to be proud of. Here, we would like to celebrate just a few of the achievements of African-Americans in Astronomy and Space. Print this page and try your hand at our Black History Month puzzle. Page 4.

Brightest Stars Word Search Puzzle
Brightest Stars Word Search Puzzle. Page 2.

Mars Word Search Puzzle
Mars Word Search Puzzle. Space / Astronomy.

Near Earth Objects Word Search Puzzle
Could life imitate art? If you watched either of the 1998 movies Deep Impact or Armageddon, you may have an idea of the future that faces Earth is we are hit by a Near Earth Object (NEO). According to NASA, asteroids big enough to cause catastrophic destruction could theoretically hit Earth every million years, or at longer intervals. Near Earth Objects - Are We In Danger? I don't know, but you're in no danger of not having fun with our Near Earth Objects Puzzle. Page 5.

William Herschel Word Search Puzzle
William Herschel, one of the greatest astronomers that has ever lived, was born at Hanover, on the 15th November, 1738. Touches of genius were, indeed, liberally scattered among the members of hiss large family, and in the case of William and his sister several years younger, it was united with that determined perseverance and rigid adherence to principle which enabled genius to fulfill its perfect work. Print out this page and try your hand at our William Herschel Word Search Puzzle. Page 6.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Greek Coin
An ancient Greek coin.. Space / Astronomy.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Portrait of Pythagoras
While in Egypt, Pythagoras visited, or at least tried to visit, many of the temples and spoke with a large number of priests and scholars. There are some accounts that indicate he was denied access to all but a few temples. One, however, which he apprently entered was Diospolis, where he was accepted into the priesthood after completing the rites necessary for admission. While in Egypt, Pythagors continued his education, especially in mathematics and geometry.. Page 2.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Pythagoras Bust
Ten years after Pythagoras arrived in Egypt, relations between that country and Samos fell apart. Polycrates sent 40 ships to help Cambyses II, the king of Persia, invaded Egypt. During this war, Egypt lost and Pythagoras was taken prisoner and taken to Babylon. Pygathoras wasn't treate as a prisoner of war as we would consider today. He continued his education in mathematics and music and delved into the teachings of the priests, learning their sacred rites. Page 3.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Pythagoras Drawing
A picture taken from a book by Boethius.. Page 4.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Pythagoras Stamp 2
He founded another school in Croton (now known as Crotone, on the east of the heel of southern Italy). It was a philosophical and religious school with many followers. Like a pyramid, with Pythagoras at the head, the society had an inner circle of followers known as mathematikoi (priests of mathematics). These mathematikoi lived permanently with the Society, were allowed no personal possessions and were vegetarians. They received training only from by Pythagoras, following very strict rules.. Page 7.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Pythagoras Stamp
He returned to Samos, which was now under the rule of Darius of Persia. Soon afterwards, he made a brief trip to Crete to studyb their legal system before returning to Samos to found his own school. It was called the Semicircle, and is still known by that name even today. The Samians were not very receptive to his teaching method. Page 6.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Pythagoras the Astronomer
Pythagoras was well educated, learning to read and play the lyre. It is said that while in Tyre, he studied with the Chaldaeans and the learned men of Syria. At home, he was influenced by his teacher, the philosopher, Pherekydes. Another apocryphal tale ha him visiting Miletus in his late teenage years to study with Thales. By this time, thales was a very old man, who probably did not teah Pythagoras a lot, but may have greatly influenced him. Page 8.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Pythagoras the Mathematician
Unfortunately, the actual date or place of Pythagoras's death has been lost to history. However, his impact on that history still resonates today.. Page 11.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Sculpture of Pythagoras.
Pythagoras, the son of Mnesarchus and Pythais, was born on the island of Samos, off the coast of Asia Minor (what is now mostly Turkey), about 569 BC. Pythais was a native of Samos. Mnesarchus was a merchant from Tyre. An apocryphal story says that he brought grain to Samos during a famine and was granted citizenship of Samos out of gratitude. Pythagoras probably had at least two brothers, perhaps three. Little is known about his childhood. Page 9.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - The School of Athens by Raphael
From the fresco The School of Athens by Raphael.. Page 10.

Pythagoras of Samos Pictures - Pythagoras Medallion
This medallion was engraved about 400 AD.. Page 5.

Pictures of the Star Sirius - An Artist's Impression of Sirius A and B
This picture is an artist's impression showing how the binary star system of Sirius A and its diminutive blue companion, Sirius B, might appear to an interstellar visitor. The large, bluish-white star Sirius A dominates the scene, while Sirius B is the small but very hot and blue white-dwarf star on the right. The two stars revolve around each other every 50 years. White dwarfs are the leftover remnants of stars similar to our Sun. Page 2.

Aristotle Pictures - Aristotle Stamp 1
Hermias had gathered group of philosophers on Assos. Aristotle became the leader of this group. Thanks to his father, he was very interested in anatomy and biology and was a great observer. Aristotle and his group began to collect observations while in Assos, in particular in zoology and biology. He also probably began writing Politics during these years as well as On Kingship, which hasn't survive to this day. Unfortunately, politics once again played a part in Aristotles next move. Page 3.

Aristotle Pictures - Aristotle Stamp 2
Aristotle apparently lectured on a wide variety of topics, many of which had never been studied before, making him an innovator. He often lectured repeatedly on the same topic, contiuously improving on his own thought processes, writing down his lectures, many of which we still have today. Some of his topics included logic, physics, astronomy, meteorology, zoology, metaphysics, theology, psychology, politics, economics, ethics, rhetoric, and poetics. Page 4.

Aristotle Pictures - Aristotle from The School of Athens
A detail from the fresco The School of Athens by Raphael. The events leading to Aristotles departure from the academy are a bit cloudy. Some say that after Plato died in 347 BC, Speusippus assumed the leadership of the Academy. Perhaps Aristotle quit because he disagreed with Speusippus's views, or had hoped to be named Plato's successor, himself. Another theory deals with Aristotle's old friend, Philip of Macedonia. Page 2.

Aristotle Pictures - Bust of Aristotle
From Athens, Aristotle traveled to Assos, where he was received warmly by the ruler Hermias of Atarneus. Many believe he was acting as an ambassador for Philip of Macedonia, and he was certainly treated as such. He married Pythias, the niece and adopted daughter of Hermias, who was probably about 18 at the time. They had one child, a daughter also called Pythias, but the elder Pythias died about 10 years after their marriage. Page 5.

Aristotle Pictures - Carving of Aristotle
Aristotle was born around 384 BC in Stagirus on the Chalcidic peninsula of northern Greece, to Nicomachus, a medical doctor, and Phaestis. Stagirus was his father's home, while Phaestis came from Chalcis in Euboea. We don't know anything about Aristotle's childhood, but it is likely Nicomachus would have expected his son to follow in his footsteps. So, Aristotle quite probably traveled with his father on his work, which was the way of the physician of the day. Page 6.

Ptolemy Pictures - Ptolemy Stamp
This stamp is purported to include an image of Ptolemy. The Ptolemaic System was the accepted wisdom until the Polish scholar Copernicus proposed a heliocentric view in 1543. In fairness, Ptolemy's system is actually more accurate than Copernicus's. The heliocentric calculations for the movement of planets does not improve on Ptolemy's until Kepler's Laws were added. Some people also doubt that Ptolemy truly believed his own system, rather he merelt used it as a method of calculating positions. Page 4.

Ptolemy Pictures - Ptolemy Woodcut by Theodore de Bry
Ptolemy woodcut by Theodore de Bry (1528-1598). Ptolemy was an astronomer, mathematician and geographer. He classified the Greek geocentric view of the universe, and calculated the apparent motions of the planets, as they were known in his time by synthesizing and extending Hipparchus's system of epicycles and eccentric circles to explain his geocentric theory of the solar system. He used at least 80 epicycles to explain the motions of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets known in his time. Page 5.

New Horizons Sits on Pad Ready for Launch
Clouds stream overhead as the Atlas V sits poised at Launch Pad 41 during Tuesday's launch attempt. Page 9.

NASA New Horizons Mission Pictures - PEPSSI Instrument
Mike Lynch, Carlos Castillo and Jim Hutcheson of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory apply thermally insulating Kapton tape between the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft and the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument during pre-launch operations at Kennedy Space Center, Fla., on Oct 5. Page 4.

NASA New Horizons Mission Pictures - Ralph Instrument
Image above of the Ralph instrument. The instrument has two separate channels: the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) and the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). A single telescope with a 3-inch (6-centimeter) aperture collects and focuses the light used in both channels. . Page 5.

Apollo 1 Crew in Simulator
Astronauts for the first Apollo Mission (L-R) Roger B. Chaffee, Edward H. White and Virgil I. Grissom practice for the mission in the Apollo Mission Simulator. Page 3.

Funeral of Astronaut Virgil Grissom
The flag draped coffin of Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom is being escorted at Arlington Cemetery, Va., by his fellow astronauts. Page 2.

Apollo 1 Mission Pictures - Apollo 1 Fire and Its Aftermath
It was January 27, 1967 and the crew of Apollo/Saturn 204 (more commonly known as Apollo 1 mission) were training for the first crewed Apollo flight. During this training, tragedy struck. A fire killed the entire crew. On board were astronaut Virgil I.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Another Closeup view of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command Module after flash fire
Closeup view of the interior of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command Module at Pad 34 showing the effects of the intense heat of the flash fire which killed the prime crew of the Apollo/Saturn 204 mission. Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chaffee lost their lives in the accidental fire.. Page 13.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 1 Astronauts
Astronauts (left to right) Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee, pose in front of Launch Complex 34 which is housing their Saturn 1 launch vehicle. The astronauts later died in a fire on the pad.. Page 4.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 1 Fire
Officially designated Apollo/Saturn 204, but more commonly known as Apollo 1, this close-up view of the interior of the Command Module shows the effects of the intense heat of the flash fire which killed the prime crew during a routine training exercise. While strapped into their seats inside the Command Module atop the giant Saturn V Moon rocket, a faulty electrical switch created a spark which ignited the pure oxygen environment. Page 5.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 1 Mars Memorial
An image taken from Spirit's PanCam looking west depicts the nearby hills named after the astronauts of the Apollo 1. The crew of Apollo 1 perished in flash fire during a launch pad test of their Apollo spacecraft at Kennedy Space Center, Fl. on January 27, 1967. The inset above is an image taken by the Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera of the Columbia Memorial Station and the nearby hills named after the Apollo 1 crew. Page 6.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 1 Mission Patch
Emblem of NASA's first manned Apollo space flight, Apollo/Saturn Mission 204. Picture denotes Apollo spacecraft in earth orbit. . Page 7.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 1 prime and backup crews
Apollo 1 prime and backup crews. Seated is the prime crew (left to right) Edward H. White II, Virgil I. Grissom, and Roger B. Chaffee. Standing is the backup crew (left to right) David R. Scott, James A. McDivitt, and Russell L. Schweickart.. Page 8.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 1 prime crew in spacesuits at the launch complex
Apollo 1 prime crew are seen in their spacesuits at Launch Complex 34 at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. From left to right are Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chaffee.. Page 9.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 1's Command Module
This photograph shows Apollo 1's Command Module a day after the fire that took the lives of astronauts Lt. Col. Virgil

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Apollo 204 Astronauts Training
Originally designated as the Apollo/Saturn 204 mission, but more commonly known as Apollo 1, this photograph shows the crew in training. On January 27, 1967, disaster fell upon the Apollo 1 mission when a sudden fire broke out in the command module during a launch pad test in which all three of the primary crew perished. Astronauts Lt. Col. Virgil

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Closeup view of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command Module after flash fire
Closeup view of the exterior of Apollo 012 Command Module at Pad 34 showing the effects of the intense heat of the flash fire which killed the prime crew of the Apollo/Saturn 204 mission. Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chaffee lost their lives in the accidental fire.. Page 12.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Command Module Interior after fire
This image provides a look inside the Command Module of Saturn 204/Apollo 1 after the flash fire which killed the entire crew.. Page 15.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Command Module before fire
This image shows the Saturn 204/Apollo 1 Command Module before it was burnt in a tragic fire, killing all three crewmembers.. Page 14.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Introduction of Apollo 1 Crew
Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (far right) introduces the Apollo 1 crew during a press conference in Houston. From the left are astronauts Roger Chaffee, Edward H. White II and Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom.. Page 16.

Apollo 1 Mission and Fire Pictures - Portrait of Apollo 1 prime crew
Portrait of Apollo 1 prime crew for first manned Apollo space flight. Left to right, are Astronauts Edward H. White II, Virigil I. Grissom, and Roger B. Chaffee.. Page 17.

NASA Project Mercury Overview Pictures - Original 7 astronauts in Mercury space suits
Original 7 astronauts in Mercury space suits. Front row, left to right, are Walter M. Schirra Jr., Donald K. Slayton, John H. Glenn Jr., and M. Scott Carpenter. Back row, from the left, are Alan B. Shepard Jr., Virgil I. Grissom and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. Page 4.

NASA Project Mercury Overview Pictures - The original Mercury astronauts are pictured around a table admiring an Atlas model
The original Mercury astronauts are pictured around a table admiring an Atlas model. Standing, left to right are Alan B. Shepard, Jr., Walter M. Schirra, Jr., and John H. Glenn, Jr.; sitting, left to right are Virgil I. Grissom, M. Scott Carpenter, Donald Slayton, and L. Gordon Cooper, Jr. Below the photo is a copy of each man's signature. . Page 7.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - 51-L Challenger Crew Remains Transferred
Challenger crewmember remains being transferred from 7 hearse vehicles to a C-141 transport plane at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility for transport to Dover Air Force Base, DE. STS-51L crew consisted of: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis & Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee & Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.. Page 2.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - 51-L Flight Crew Emergency Egress Training
The STS-51L Challenger flight crew emergency egress training in the slide wire baskets. From left to right they are: Mission Specialist, Ronald McNair, Payload Specialist, Gregory Jarvis, Teacher in Space Participant, Christa McAuliffe. Directly behind them: Mission Specialist Judy Resnik and Mission Specialist, Ellison Onizuka.. Page 3.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Signs of black smoke during Liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger STS 51-L
This 70mm still photograph of the 51-L launch was taken from Camera Pad 10 north of Launch complex 39-B approximately 58.32 seconds after launch. The photograph shows an unusual plume in the lower part of the right hand solid rocket booster (SRB) (026); Photograph of the 51-L launch at approximately 58.82 seconds after launch shows an unusual plume in the lower part of the right hand SRB (027). Page 4.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Challenger Wreckage Entombment
STS-51L Challenger wreckage remains and boxes of debris being lowered into abandoned Minuteman Missile Silos at Complex 31 on Cape Canveral Air Force Station.. Page 5.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Christa McAulffe in the Shuttle Mission Simulator
Sharon Christa McAulffe, the Teacher in Space Payload Specialist from Concord, New Hampshire, trains for the STS 51-L mission in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). She is seated in the mission specialists station behind the pilot's station. Astronaut Michael J. Smith, pilot for STS 51-L, mans his station in left foreground.. Page 6.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Casual view of Christa McAuliffe during training for STS 51-L
Casual portrait view of Christa McAuliffe during training for STS 51-L.. Page 7.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Christa McAuliffe preparing for STS 51-L flight
Christa McAuliffe, STS 51-L payload specialist, has homework of her own to do to prepare for the STS 51-L flight.. Page 8.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - LDEF: Postflight Detail-Front Lower Left 1/4(Bay A)
LDEF: Postflight Detail-Front Lower Left 1/4(Bay A). Page 9.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Official portrait Gregory Jarvis STS 51-L payload specialist
Official portrait Gregory Jarvis STS 51-L payload specialist. Jarvis, a Hughes employee, is wearing the blue shuttle flight suit. A model of the shuttle is on the table in front of him and an American flag is in the left of the frame.. Page 10.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Memorial service at JSC for the Crew of STS 51-L
Overall view of the audience at the memorial service at JSC for the Crew of STS 51-L.. Page 11.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger for STS 51-L mission
View of the Liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger for STS 51-L mission taken from the PAFB/IGOR camera site.. Page 12.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger for STS 51-L mission
View of the Liftoff of the Shuttle Challenger for STS 51-L mission taken from the PAFB/IGOR camera site.. Page 13.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Memorial service at JSC for the Crew of STS 51-L
Overall view of the audience and some of the news media at the memorial service at JSC for the Crew of STS 51-L.. Page 14.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Memorial service at JSC for the Crew of STS 51-L
Overall view of the audience at the memorial service at JSC for the Crew of STS 51-L.. Page 15.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Payload specialists in training for STS 51-L in mockup and integration lab
Payload specialists in training for STS 51-L take a break in Shuttle emergency egress training at JSC's mockup and integration laboratory. Left to right are Gregory Jarvis of Hughes, Sharon Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan of the Teacher in Space Project.. Page 17.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Photos of debris from the STS 51-L accident still on the ocean floor
Photos of debris from the STS 51-L accident still on the ocean floor. View is labeled JSL 11 17 Feb. 86. P.M.S. Lower Benthos. Dive #1245,1246 (ts).. Page 19.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Photos of debris from the STS 51-L accident still on the ocean floor
Photos of debris from the STS 51-L accident still on the ocean floor. View is labeled JSL 11 17 Feb. 86. P.M.S. Lower Benthos. Dive #1245,1246 (ts).. Page 18.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - STS-51-L Debris (Airlock)
On January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger and her seven-member crew were lost when a ruptured O-ring in the right Solid Rocket Booster caused an explosion soon after launch. Search teams later retrieved pieces from the Atlantic Ocean. The recovered airlock, which joined the payload bay to the crew module, rests in storage with other debris from the Shuttle's final mission.. Page 24.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - STS 51-L crew patch
Members of the STS 51-L crew designed this patch which will represent their mission. The Challenger is depicted launching from Florida with a backdrop of Halley's comet against the U.S. flag. Surnames of the crewmembers encircle the scene, with the payload specialists being recognized below. Surname of the first teacher in space, Sharon Christa McAuliffe, is followed by a symbolic apple.. Page 22.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - STS 51-L crewmembers at Ellington AFB for training flight in T-38
Assigned 51-L crewmembers and backup are pictured at Ellington Air Field following brief flights in NASA's T-38 jet trainers. Left to right are Barbara R. Morgan, Michael J. Smith, an unidentified visitor, Sharon Christa McAuliffe and Francis R. (Dick) Scobee.. Page 23.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - LDEF: Postflight Detail-Front Lower Left 1/6
LDEF: Postflight Detail-Front Lower Left 1/6. Page 25.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - LDEF: Postflight Detail-Front Upper Left 1/4
LDEF: Postflight Detail-Front Upper Left 1/4. Page 26.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Booster Rocket Breach
On January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger and her seven-member crew were lost when a ruptured O-ring in the right Solid Rocket Booster caused an explosion soon after launch. Search teams later retrieved pieces from the Atlantic Ocean. The recovered airlock, which joined the payload bay to the crew module, rests in storage with other debris from the Shuttle's final mission. . Page 27.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - LOX Tank Rupture
The bright luminous glow at the top is attributed to the rupture of the liquid oxygen tank just above the SRB/ET attachment. At this point, Challenger is completely engulfed in a firey flow of escaping liquid propellant. . Page 28.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Shuttle Destruction
Hurtling out of the conflagration at 78 seconds are the Challenger's left wing, main engines (still burning residual propellant) and the forward fuselage (crew cabin). . Page 29.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - LDEF (Flight), S0001 : Space Debris Impact Experiment, Tray A05
The flight photograph was taken while the LDEF was attached to the Orbiter's RMS arm prior to berthing in the Orbiter's cargo bay. A combination of the space environment and contamination has caused the paint dot on the clamp block located at the center of the bottom tray flange to change from their original white color to dark brown. Finger prints observed on the lower tray flange and sidewall indicate the lack of proper preflight handling/cleaning. Page 30.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Official portrait Sharon Christa McAuliffe, STS 51-L Teacher in Space
Official portrait Sharon Christa McAuliffe, STS 51-L Teacher in Space. She is wearing the blue Shuttle flight suit and is holding a small model of the Shuttle. There is an American flag in the background.. Page 20.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Christa McAuliffe straps in to seat in Shuttle Mission Simulator
Sharon Christa McAuliffe, seated behind STS 51-L pilot Michael J. Smith, prepares to strap herself into the Mission Specialists position in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) as part of her training for the STS 51-L mission.. Page 21.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - Teachers in Space project logo for mission STS 51-L
Teachers in Space project logo for mission STS 51-L. Page 31.

Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster STS-51L Pictures - The STS 51-L Crew
Space / Astronomy. Page 32.

Pictures of the Dick Scobee - Astronaut Francis R. (Dick) Scobee boards T-38 for trip to KSC
Astronaut Francis R. (Dick) Scobee, 41-C pilot, is seated aboard a T-38 on the runway at Ellington Air Force Base for the trip to Kennedy Space Center (KSC).. Page 4.

Pictures of the Dick Scobee - Christa McAuliffe and Dick Scobee in Shuttle mission simulator
Astronaut Francis R. (Dick) Scobee, STS 51-L commander, briefs Payload specialist Sharon Christa McAuliffe about some of the flight systems of the Space Shuttle during a training session in JSC's Shuttle mission simulator. They are on the flight deck with McAuliffe seated at the pilot's station and Scobee at the commander's station.. Page 7.

Pictures of the Dick Scobee - Official portrait of Astronaut Francis R. (Dick) Scobee
Official portrait of Astronaut Francis R. (Dick) Scobee dressed in blue flight suit, with flag and Space Shuttle model (right). He is holding his shuttle helmet.. Page 8.

Pictures of the Dick Scobee - STS 41-C crew breakfast
The STS 41-C astronaut crew awaiting their breakfast prior to launch. Crewmen include, from left to right: Astronauts George D. Nelson, James D. van Hoften, Robert L. Crippen, Francis R. (Dick) Scobee and Terry J. Hart. Crippen is crew commander, Scobee is pilot and the others are mission specialists. Notice the cake on the table in front of them is decorated with the mission patch and the names of the crew.. Page 11.

Pictures of the Moon - Far Side of the Moon
This image of the moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on Dec. 8 at 7 p.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft passed the Earth and was able to view the lunar surface from a vantage point not possible from the Earth. On the right-hand side of the image is seen the dark maria of Oceanus Procellarum, also visible from the Earth. The dark spots in the center are Mare Orientale, on the western limb of the nearside of the moon, a region barely visible from the Earth. Page 14.

Pictures of the Moon - First Close-up of the Moon from Luna 3
The Luna 3 spacecraft returned the first views ever of the far side of the Moon. The first image was taken at 03:30 UT on 7 October at a distance of 63,500 km after Luna 3 had passed the Moon and looked back at the sunlit far side. The last image was taken 40 minutes later from 66,700 km. A total of 29 photographs were taken, covering 70% of the far side. The photographs were very noisy and of low resolution, but many features could be recognized. Page 13.

Pictures of the Moon - First Image of the Far Side of the Moon
The Luna 3 spacecraft returned the first views ever of the far side of the Moon. The first image was taken at 03:30 UT on 7 October at a distance of 63,500 km after Luna 3 had passed the Moon and looked back at the sunlit far side. The last image was taken 40 minutes later from 66,700 km. A total of 29 photographs were taken, covering 70% of the far side. The photographs were very noisy and of low resolution, but many features could be recognized. This is the first image returned by Luna 3. Page 12.

Pictures of the Moon - First Picture of the Moon Taken by Ranger 8
First full-frame image of the Moon taken by the Ranger 8 camera A from a distance of 2,573 km. The image was taken on 20 Feb. 1965 at 09:34 UT with the spacecraft at an altitude of 2510 km. The central reticle is at 10.65 degrees south latitude, 22.4 degrees west longitude, in the Mare Cognitum area of the Moon. North is up, and the picture extends 1200 km across, from about 5 N to 30 S latitude, and from 5 W to 45 W longitude. The craters Campanus and Mercator are visible at the bottom center. Page 11.

Pictures of the Moon - First Ranger 9 Image
The first Ranger 9 image of the Moon, taken with the A camera from a distance of 2378 km. The image is centered on the Mare Nubium region of the Moon, which extends to the bottom of the image. At upper left is southeastern Oceanus Procellarum. The two craters with the central peaks at right are Alphonsus, diameter 108 km, and below it Arzachel, diameter 96 km. The crater near the center at about 8:00 is 60 km Bullialdus. The frame is approximately 1050 km across and north is at 12:30. Page 10.

Pictures of the Moon - Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin
The South Pole-Aitken Basin is the biggest, deepest impact basin in the solar system. This view is centered on the basin at 560S, 1800E. The rim crest is about 2500 kilometers in diameter, and the basin is up to 13 kilometers in depth in some places. Its average depth is about 10 kilometers. This image - taken by NASA's Clementine spacecraft - consists of color-coded topography overlaid on a shaded relief representation of the Moon. Purples and blues are low, and orange and reds are high.. Page 9.

Pictures of the Moon - Miranda's Geologic History
Miranda reveals a complex geologic history in this view, acquired by Voyager 2 on Jan. 24, 1986, around its close approach to the Uranian moon.. Page 8.

Pictures of the Moon - Moon Color Composite
This color image of the Moon was taken by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990, at a range of about 350,000 miles. The color composite uses monochrome images taken through violet, red, and near-infrared filters. The concentric, circular Orientale basin, 600 miles across, is near the center; the nearside is to the right, the far side to the left. At the upper right is the large, dark Oceanus Procellarum; below it is the smaller Mare Humorum.. Page 7.

Pictures of the Moon - Moon Framed
Earth and its Moon are nicely framed in this image taken from the aft windows of the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1998. Discovery - on mission STS-95 - was flying over the Atlantic Ocean at the time this image was taken. . Page 6.

Pictures of the Moon - Moon Landing Sites
This image shows the locations of many spacecraft that have landed on the Moon. Green triangles are Apollo missions, yellow are NASA Surveyor missions and red are Russian Luna spacecraft. . Page 5.

Pictures of the Moon - Moonrise
A quarter moon is visible in this oblique view of Earth's horizon and airglow, recorded with a digital still camera on the final mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Columbia's crew was killed on Feb. 1, 2003 when the shuttle broke up on re-entry into Earth's atmosphere.. Page 4.