US Economy Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

The Long Term Capital Management Fund Crisis
Long-Term Capital Management (LTCM) was a massive hedge fund ($126 billion in assets). Its 1998 collapse would have set off a global crisis.

US Dollar Rate: Definition,Value in 5 Other Currencies
The U.S. dollar rate what a dollar is worth in another currency. Here's the forces affecting its rate vs the euro, rupee, pound and yen.

U.S. GDP by Year: Compared to Recessions and Events
U.S GDP by year measures the output of the U.S. economy each year since the Great Depression. Compare to growth rate and GDP per capita.

End of the American Dream: Was It a Myth or Is It Dead?
The financial crisis may have ended the modern American Dream. It also forced us to return to the one envisioned by our Founding Fathers. Here's how.

Small Business Grants: 3 Steps That Save You Time
Small business grants are awarded to companies that prove they further government goals. Here are types of grants, examples, and 3 steps to take.

Ideal GDP Growth Rate for the Economy
The ideal GDP growth rate is one that enables the economy to grow at a healthy rate. It sustainably avoids both inflation and recession.

Deficit by President: What Budget Deficits Hide
The budget deficits for each President back to Woodrow Wilson. Obama had the highest dollar increase, but Wilson had the biggest % rise.

Gold Price History: Complete History
Gold price history was below $1,000 an ounce until 2009. Here are U.S. gold prices since 1929, and during the Roman Empire and Great Britain.

National Debt by Year: Compared to GDP and Major Events
Here's national U.S. debt by year, compared to the size of the economy and whether there was a recession, war or other catastrophe.

FDR New Deal: Definition,Programs,Timeline,Did It Work
The New Deal is a series of programs launched by FDR to end the Depression. It created Social Security, FDIC, SEC, Glass-Steagall, and minimum wage.

WTO Membership: Benefits and Importance
Membership in the WTO (World Trade Organization) confers many trade benefits. That's why 162 countries are members. Who are they?

Sunni - Shiite Split: News, Wars, Countries, History
The Sunni-Shiite split is an economic war between Arab Saudi Arabia and Persian Iran. Here's the players, wars, history and why the US is involved.

Domestic Violence: Definition, Statistics, Effects
Statistics show that domestic violence cost the U.S economy as much as $67 billion a year. How these domestic violence statistics are computed.

Vertical Integration: Definition, Examples, Pros, Cons
Vertical integration is when a company controls the supply chain from manufacturing to end sales. Here's pros, cons and examples.

Types of Unemployment: 3 Main Types Plus 6 More
The main types of unemployment are structural, frictional and cyclical. Here's a guide to understanding the different types of unemployment rates.

The Collapse of the Dollar and How to Profit from It
If the dollar collapses, there are ways to hedge your losses. Learn why a dollar decline is likely and how to profit from it once it happens.

Obamacare Pre-Existing Conditions
Obamacare bans companies from denying health insurance to the 50 million Americans with pre-existing conditions. Definitions, and benefits of the ban.

US Debt by President: By Dollar and Percent
How much each President actually contributed to the $19 trillion U.S. debt all the way back to Woodrow Wilson. Who added the most percentage-wise.

Best Black Friday Deals: 5 Tips That Save You Money
The best Black Friday deals are not on Black Friday. Here are 5 steps to find the best deals using social media, apps and products.

State of the Union Summary, Economic Impact, Past SOTUs
Obama's State of the Union Address (January 12, 2016) outlines his priorities. Here's a summary, its economic impact, and past SOTUs.

Balance of Trade: Definition, Favorable vs Unfavorable
The balance of trade is the difference between a country's exports and its imports. Favorable and unfavorable balances. Role in balance of payments.

Money Supply: Definition, Quantity, Impact
The money supply is cash, checking and savings accounts. Here's how much there is, and why expansion hasn't created inflation.

Credit Default Swaps: Definition, Pros, Cons, Crises
Credit default swaps are insurance against the default of bonds. Here are the pros, cons, examples, and how they created several crises.

Obamacare Act Summary of Its 10 Titles
The Obamacare bill was passed in 2010 as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. A summary of its ten titles.

Effects of the Great Depression
The Great Depression severely affected every segment of the economy. It also created programs that prevented depressions from reoccurring.

Real GDP: Definition, Formula, Compared to Nominal
Real GDP is the economic output of a country with inflation taken out. Nominal GDP leaves it in. Here's the real GDP formula, and how it's used.

U.S. Inflation Rate by Year: 1929 - 2018
The U.S. inflation rate is the percent increase or decrease in prices. Here's history since 1929 and forecast through 2018.

Cultural Diversity in the Workplace: Economic Impact
The definition of cultural diversity, and why it matters in the workplace. How diversity, if managed correctly, can increase profits.

Government Subsidies (Farm, Oil, Export, Etc)
Federal government subsidies definitions, and summary of the major subsidy areas, including oil, farming, ethanol, exports, housing and Obamacare.

How Much Will Obamacare Cost Me
Your Obamacare costs depend on 5 factors: income, family size, age, location and type of plan. Here's what you must know before buying insurance.

President Obama's Economic Policies and Accomplishments
What has Obama done? From reforming healthcare to stopping the recesssion, his top 11 accomplishments and how they affected the U.S. economy.

When Does Obamacare Enrollment Start? What to Do Now
Open enrollment on the health care exchanges starts November 1, 2016. Get a head start, and use the exchanges to compare plans now.

What Is Obamacare? The ACA and What You Need to Know
Obamacare is the Affordable Care Act. It requires you to have health insurance or pay a tax. Here's how it changes your life.

Obamacare Timeline: What Happens Next
The next Obamacare deadline is November 1, 2015, when the exchanges open for 2016 enrollment. Here are the significant milestones.

Preventive Care: Definition, How It Lowers ACA Costs
The ACA requires health insurance plans to cover 100% of preventive care. Here's why it will lower healthcare costs in America.

Obamacare Health Insurance Exchange
The Obamacare health insurance exchanges reopen on November 1, 2016. Use them to compare plans for 2017. Here's how they work.

Dollar Collapse: Will It and When
A dollar collapse is when holders of dollar-denominated assets sell at any price. Here is what could create a collapse, and when that might occur.

Obamacare Exemptions from the ACA Tax
Obamacare tax exemptions apply to those with hardships and who can't find affordable insurance. Here's how to find out if you're exempt.

Obama and Health Care Reform
Obama's plan to reform healthcare is now known as the Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare. A summary of the original plan, and what changed.

Great Depression Timeline: 1929 - 1941
The Great Depression lasted from August 1929 to June 1938. But unemployment remained above 10% until 1941, when the US entered World War II.

Great Depression Timeline: 1929 - 1941
The Great Depression lasted from August 1929 to June 1938. But unemployment remained above 10% until 1941, when the US entered World War II.

Russian Economy: GDP, Pros and Cons
Russia's economy, 7th largest in the world, went into a recession in 2015. It was caused by trade sanctions, low oil prices and a plummeting ruble.

FY 2010 U.S. Federal Budget and Spending
A summary of the Federal FY 2010 budget compared to actual spending and how it affected the economy.

Foreign Direct Investment: Definition, Pros, Cons
Foreign direct investment, or FDI, is when businesses from one country invest in businesses in another one. Importance, pros, and cons.

Economic Growth Definition, How It's Measured, Causes
Economic growth is the increase or decrease in what a country produces over time. How it's measured, creates jobs, and what is a normal rate.

Unemployment Rate by Year: Compare to Inflation and GDP
The unemployment rate by year since 1929 compared to GDP, inflation, and economic events including fiscal and monetary policies.

Aggregate Demand: Definition, Formula, Components
Aggregate demand is everything purchased in an economy. Here are the 6 determinants, 5 components, how to calculate the formula, and U.S. demand.

Stagflation: Definition, Causes, Can It Happen Now?
Stagflation is when economic growth stagnates while inflation rises. Causes, stagflation in the 1970s, why it won't reoccur.

Lagging Indicators: Definition, List, Top 3, Index
Lagging indicators confirm the existence of an economic trend. Here's the 3 most important and those in the Index.

Current US Discretionary Federal Budget and Spending
Current discretionary spending is $1.233 trillion in 2017. These Congressional appropriations pay for programs such as Defense, Education, and NASA.

Asset-backed Commercial Paper: Definition, Pros, Cons
Asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP) is short-term debt that's backed by other loans. Here's how it works, pros and cons.

Volatility: Definition and 5 Types
Volatility describes the speed and amount of price changes. Here's the 5 types: stock, price, historical, implied and market.

Sarbanes-Oxley Act Definition and Why It Was Created
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 reduces corporate fraud. It has four ways that it specifically increases CEO accountability. Why it was created.

China Economic Growth: Cause, Pros, Cons, Future
China's economic growth is 7.4%. It's slower than prior years' double-digit growth. Causes, pros, cons and the future.

Debt Ceiling: Definition, Why It's Raised, Past Crises
The debt ceiling is a limit on how much debt the U.S. government can have. Here's the current level, how it's raised, and what happens if it isn't.

MSCI Index: What Is It and What Does It Measure?
MSCI Indexes measure stock market performances in various areas. How they work. Countries in the EM, Frontier and World Indexes.

World Bank: Definition, Purpose, History, Statistics
The World Bank provides financial and technical support to developing countries. Its purpose, history, and leadership. A guide to its data reports.

What Is Banking: How It Works, Economic Impact
What is banking? The definition of banking, its critical role in the US economy, and how that has changed.

What Is an IPO: Definition, Pros, Cons, Process
IPO (initial public offering) is when a company first sells stock to raise more capital. Pros and cons to companies and investors. IPO process.

National Debt Under Obama: Three Ways to Measure
The U.S. debt increased $6.5 trillion during the Obama Administration. But how much did Obamacare, the ARRA, and other programs really add?

What Is the Dodd Frank Wall Street Reform Act:Summary
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act regulates the practices of Wall Street to prevent another financial crisis. Here's a summary of the Act.

Obamacare Explained: What You Need to Know Now
Obamacare explained in a way that's simple enough for even your kids. What you need to know to get the right plan for you and avoid the penalty.

Bee Colony Collapse Disorder: Facts and Economic Impact
Colony collapse disorder killed 40% of bees last year. That costs the U.S. economy billions. It's caused by pesticides. Is the government doing enough?

Obamacare Summary: How It Affects You
An easy-to-understand summary of Obamacare and how it affects you depending on your particular circumstance.

Flat Tax: Definition, Pros, Cons, Examples
The flat tax is a system applies the same rate to every dollar of income. Pros and cons, examples, countries, comparison to fair tax. Would it work?

Market Capitalization: Types, How It Values Companies
Market cap is a company's stock price times the number of shares outstanding. It's a relatively good way to quickly value a company.

Purchasing Power Parity: Definition, How It's Used
Purchasing power parity is a theory that says prices of goods between countries should equalize over time. Formula, how to use, and examples.

Leading Economic Indicators Overview
Leading economic indicators are statistics that predict what will happen in the economy. They identify future business cycle changes.

Disadvantages, Problems and Negative Effects of NAFTA
NAFTA has 6 disadvantages, including loss of U.S. jobs and exploitation of Mexican workers. Here's all six NAFTA problems.

Ways to Prevent Unemployment
Prevent your own unemployment with two different strategies: do what you love, and become good at it, or find opportunities, and train for it.

Consumer Price Index (CPI): Definition, Calculation
The Consumer Price Index (CPI Index) measures inflation each month. Here's how it's calculated and the importance of the Core CPI.

U.S. Economy Statistics: Current, News
U.S. economy statistics explain where we are in the business cycle. Here are the latest stats for jobs, unemployment, GDP, debt, inflation, etc.

Inflation: Definition, How It's Measured and Managed
Inflation is when prices rise over a designated time period. The inflation rate is the percent increase. Here's more definitions, types, and causes.

United States Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics
The Bureau of Labor Statistics is the research arm of the Department of Labor. It provides national data on employment, unemployment, and inflation.

What Is Wrong With Obamacare?
What is wrong with Obamacare? Here's 11 problems the ACA has created, most of them unanticipated.

Federal Reserve Tools and How They Work
The Federal Reserve uses tools to prevent inflation and shorten recessions. It created many new tools to attack the financial crisis.

Hillary Clinton's 2016 Economic Plan
Hillary Clinton's 2016 economic plan focuses on improving middle-class incomes. Impact on the U.S. economy. Summaries of prior plans. Brief bio.

Donald Trump 2016 Economic Plan
Donald Trump's 2016 economic plan focuses on tax reform, protectionism, and cutting spending. Would it work? Impact on the U.S. economy.

2016 Presidential Candidates Economic Plans
Compare the 2016 Presidential candidates' economic platforms. Would their plans work? How would they affect you and the economy?

President Bill Clinton's Economic Policies
Bill Clinton's economic policies included tax increases, welfare reform, and budget surpluses. It boosted economic growth and reduced poverty.

How to Create Jobs: Bill Clinton's 14 Proposals
Former President Bill Clinton describes 14 ways to create jobs. Six of them are specific, doable, and were ignored by Washington decision-makers.

Consumer Debt Statistics: Definition, Causes, Impact
Consumer debt rose 5.8% in July, totaling $3.66 trillion. The 3 reasons Americans are in so much debt. A record of debt by month since 2006.

Average Credit Card Debt: U.S. Statistics
The average credit card debt per household was $7,943 in July 2016. Here's debt per person, per card-carrying adult, causes, highs and lows.

Unemployment Solutions: Summary, Most Cost-Effective
A summary of the most popular unemployment solutions, which ones work, and which are the most cost effective solutions.

Deinstitutionalization: Causes, Effects, Pros, Cons
Deinstitutionalization was a federal policy in the 1960s to provide community care for the mentally ill. It was sabotaged by insufficient funding.

Benefits of Obamacare: Advantages of the ACA
The benefits of Obamacare include: making insurance affordable, focus on prevention to lower costs, and improving how healthcare is delivered.

Shift in Demand Curve: Definition, Causes, Examples
A shift in the demand curve is when a determinant of demand, other than price, changes. A shift to the left means demand drops, and vice-versa.

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Details
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) had seven detailed components. That made it so complicated that most people didn't know what it did.

Why We Need Healthcare Reform
We needed to reform healthcare mainly because costs are so high. Here are three other reasons, what drove costs up, and how the ACA helps.

Mutual Funds vs Stocks: Risks vs Returns of Each
The benefits of mutual funds vs stock investing. Risk vs returns for each. The amount of time involved.

CBO Report on Obamacare: Costs, Savings, and Impact
The CBO reported that Obamacare will reduce the budget deficit $143 billion even though it costs $940 billion to implement. Here's how.

Human Resources Outsourcing: Definition, Effect
Human resources outsourcing occurs when businesses hire companies to manage personnel functions. Pros, cons and effect on U.S. economy.

Ceteris Paribus: Definition, Pronunciation, Examples
Ceteris Paribus is a Latin phrase that means

How Much Did Obamacare Cost?
How much did Obamacare cost? An explanation of why estimates range from $1.76 trillion to savings of $143 billion over the next decade.

How Does Obamacare Work for Me?
How does Obamacare work? Obamacare works for you by making sure you can get insurance. Beyond that, it depends on your particular circumstance.

Essential Health Benefits of ACA: Definition, Impact
The essential health benefits are services that the ACA requires health plans to cover. List, explanation, and impact on the economy.

Simple Steps Towards Getting Obamacare
Here are simple steps towards getting Obamacare. See if you're eligible for a subsidy or free Medicaid.

Photos of Great Depression - Economic Impact
These photos show the adverse economic effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl.

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Retirement Crisis: Stats, Causes, Effect
Retirement is a dream for most Americans, but without planning very few will realize it. Find out how this impacts the economy and you.

Hillary Clinton on Economy and Jobs
Hillary Clinton would use middle class tax cuts and investment tax increases to create jobs. How these and three other proposals would really work.

United Kingdom Economy: Components, Type, Impact on US
The United Kingdom's economy is $2.679 trillion in 2015 and the tenth largest in the world. Here's how it impacts the United States.

Why Do We Pay Taxes? Where Do They Come From?
We pay taxes because Congress enacts tax laws. Our taxes pay for government services, primarily Social Security, Defense, and Medicare.

US Economy: Facts, Definitions, Influences
The U.S. economy is the world's third largest. It's mixed economy is a balance of free market and command protected by the U.S. Constitution.

Rising Healthcare Costs: 3 Causes
Healthcare costs have been rising thanks to reliance on emergency room care, preventable chronic diseases, and aging Baby Boomers. Here's more.

Capitalism: Definition, Examples, Pros, Cons
Capitalism is an economic theory where production is privately owned and distributed by the laws of supply and demand. Here's pros, cons and examples.

Communism: Definition,Pros, Cons, Examples
Communism is an economic theory that produces

Obamacare Facts: 9 ACA Facts That You Don't Know
Here's 9 Obamacare facts that will definitely surprise you...and more important, help you get everything you deserve from the Affordable Care Act.

Socialism: Definition, Types, Pros, Cons, Examples
Socialism is an economic theory where the factors of production are owned and allocated by the workers. Here's pros, cons and examples.

How Does Health Insurance Work?
Health insurance protects your assets and makes sure you can get health care when you really need it. Here's how it works and why the U.S. relies on it.

Healthcare Costs: Facts About Its Impact
Healthcare costs are the number one cause of bankruptcies. Twenty percent of Americans struggle to pay medical bills. The facts about its impact.

FY 2015 U.S. Federal Budget and Spending
The U.S. Federal budget and spending for FY 2015.

Quality of Life Research and Index
Quality of life is general well-being that includes 6 dimensions. Here's how it's measured, and how it's used, and quality of life by country.

Inflation and Deflation: Definition, Causes, Effects
Inflation is when prices rise and deflation is when prices fall. How to tell the difference, which is worse, and how to protect yourself.

Foreign Exchange Reserves: Definition and Purpose
Foreign exchange reserves are central bank funds used to make sure there's enough foreign currency to pay for imports. Here's 6 other reasons.

NAFTA Pros and Cons: 6 Advantages and Disadvantages
NAFTA is the world's largest trade agreement. It increased trade overall, but hurt American and Mexican workers.

Gross National Income: Definition, vs GDP and GNP,
Gross National Income (GNI) is the earned by a country's citizens and companies. Difference from GDP and GNP. GNI by country and per capita.

Reasons Why the U.S. Economy Won't Collapse
Worried about the economy? Here are several reasons why the U.S. economy and the dollar are not in imminent danger of collapsing.

China Stock Market: Shanghai, Shenzhen, Hong Kong
China's stock market is represented by three exchanges: the Shanghai, the Shenzhen, and the Hong Kong. Here's why they are so volatile.

Hurricane Sandy Damage Facts and Economic Impact
Hurricane Sandy caused $50 billion in damage, making it the second-worst storm in U.S. history. Find out why, and how it compares to other storms.

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) removes export barriers between the U.S. and the EU. It's impact, pros and cons.

Yuan: Reserve Currency to Global Currency?
Will the yuan replace the U.S. dollar as a global currency? The IMF designated it as a reserve currency. That's the first step.

Ukraine Crisis: Summary, Explanation
The Ukraine crisis occurred in 2013 when its people replaced Russian ties for a trade deal with the EU. Putin attacked, causing war and sanctions.

Oligarchy Pros and Cons, Definition
An oligarchy is a group of influential people or businesses that manage a society. Here's oligarchy pros and cons and a look at the United States.

NAFTA Definition: How It Works, Why It's Important
NAFTA is the trade agreement between the United States, Canada and Mexico. How it works, why its important, pros and cons, history.

Dollar Strength: Definition, Why So High Now
The dollar's strength increased 25% between 2014 and 2015. It's remains strong in 2016. Here are the three major causes and a timeline of events.

Cyclical Unemployment: Definition, Causes, Effects
Cyclical unemployment is when demand falls, and businesses lay off workers. Here are the causes, effects, examples, and solutions for the cycle.

President John F. Kennedy's Economic Policies
A summary of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy's economic policies. He was elected to end the 1960 recession, and did so with deficit spending.

TALF: The Term Auction Loan Facility Bailout Program
The TALF bailout program provided taxpayer funds for credit card companies to prevent more bankruptcies.

LBJ: Economic Policies, Impact
LBJ's economic policies include the War on Poverty, the Great Society, the Vietnam War, Medicare, urban renewal and civil rights.

Tea Party Movement: Economic Platform, History
The Tea Party movement is a populist, conservative branch of the Republican party. It opposes government spending, taxation, and regulation.

9/11 Attacks Economic Impact
The 9/11 attacks deepened the 2001 recession, led to the War on Terror, and helped create the largest debt in U.S. history.

President Ronald Reagan's Economic Policies
A summary of President Ronald Reagan's economic policies, Reaganomics, supply-side economics and the recession of 1981.

Trickle Down Economics: Theory, Effect, Does It Work
Trickle-down economic theory says business and investment tax cuts benefit everyone. Compare to supply-side economics, Reaganomics, Laffer Curve.

What Is the Greece Debt Crisis? Latest News Explained
The Greece debt crisis is a clash between the Eurozone's monetary and political system. Here's news, causes, and consequences.

Sovereign Debt: Definition, Importance and Rankings
Sovereign debt (sovereign credit) is the money owed by a country's government to its creditors. Here's the pros, cons, and rankings.

Raghuram G. Rajan Biography
Raghuram G. Rajan became Governor of the Reserve Bank of India on September 5 2013. He correctly predicted the 2008 crisis, and criticized the Fed.

Stock Market Crash 2008: Date, Causes
The stock market crash of 2008 included the Dow's worst point drop ever on September 29. Why it crashed. Timeline of events.

U.S. Dollar: Definition, Symbols, Denomination,Currency
The U.S. dollar is America's currency, as well as the world's reserve currency. Here's its denominations, history, and meaning of its symbols.

Traditional Economy: Definition, Examples, Pros, Cons
A traditional economy is a society where economic decisions are guided by customs. It relies on hunting and fishing, and uses barter.

Market Economy: Definition, Pros, Cons, Examples
A market economy is where production of goods and services are regulated by the laws of supply and demand. Here's pros, cons and examples.

Command Economy: Definition, Characteristics, Pros/Cons
A command economy is planned by a government to attain its societal goals. Here are 5 characteristics, pros, cons, and examples of countries.

Canada Economy Facts and Outlook
Canada's economy is $1.6 trillion. It may be headed into a recession because it relies on energy exports to the United States.

President Richard M. Nixon's Economic Policies
Nixon resigned 40 years ago over Watergate. His economic policies were no better, causing stagflation, two recessions, and massive dollar decline.

Bush Administration: Economic Policies
The Bush Administration's policies added to the national debt by funding two wars and three tax cuts.

FDR: Economic Policies and Accomplishments
FDR's economic policies included the New Deal to end the Depression and World War II. He created Social Security, minimum wage and child labor laws.

Washington Mutual: How It Went Bankrupt
Washington Mutual (WAMU) was a successful Savings and Loan until it became the largest bank failure in U.S. history. What caused its decline.

U.S. Current Account Deficit: Definition, Statistics
The U.S. current account deficit was $484.1 billion in 2015, the largest in the world. Here's why some think it threatens the global economy.

The US Current Account Deficit - Threat or Way of Life?
The U.S. current account deficit was $473.4 billion in 2011, climbing slightly after falling during the financial crisis. As the deficit rises again, find out why some think it may be the greatest single threat to the global economy. Page 2.

Crude Oil Prices: Definition, Trends, Impact
Crude oil prices are the auction price for a barrel of oil at any given time. Here's how prices impact you and the economy, and recent trends.

What Is the Unemployment Rate in the US
The national unemployment rate is the number of people looking for a job divided by the number in the labor force. How it's used.

How Are Interest Rates Determined
Interest rates are determined by the Fed funds rate and demand for U.S. Treasury notes. Here's how it works.

U.S. Trade Deficit: Causes, Effects, Trade Partners
The U.S. trade deficit was $531.5 billion in 2015. Here's a summary of what's traded, what causes the deficit, and America's largest trade partners.

US China Trade Deficit: Causes, Effects and Solutions
The US trade deficit with China is the largest in the world, and a sign of global economic imbalance. Here's its causes, effects and remedies.

IOUSA Documentary Summary and Review
IOUSA: The Movie clearly showed why the U.S. national debt is too high. It shows what caused the debt using interviews and entertaining graphics.

China Economy: Facts, Effect on US Economy
China's economy is the world's largest, thanks to being the #1 exporter. Here's causes, concerns, and impact on the United States.

Germany: GDP and Economic Facts
Germany's economy and GDP, the largest in Europe. How it compares to the EU and the U.S.

Iceland: Financial Crisis, Bankruptcy, and Economy
Iceland's bankruptcy was caused by poor investment by state-run banks. Here are the causes, and why Iceland is only now releasing restrictions.‚Äč

India's Economy: Challenges and Opportunities
The major challenge for India's economy is to grow without inflation. Newly elected Prime MInister Modi could also boost trade with the U.S.

Mexico Economy: Facts, Opportunities, Challenges
Mexico's economy is $2.2 trillion. It's more attractive to investors as President Pena Nieto opens up its energy industries.

What Is the European Union: How It Works, History
The European Union (EU) is a monetary entity comprised of 28 fiscally independent countries. Great Britain voted to leave, threatening 2 million jobs.

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries
The Gulf Cooperation Council represents the growing power of its oil-exporting members. It includes every country in the Arab Peninsula except Yemen.

FY 2008 U.S. Federal Budget and Spending
The FY 2008 U.S. Federal Budget occurred during an election year and the Great Recession. Here's the original budget, and actual spending.

Fixed Exchange Rate: Definition, Pros, Cons, Examples
A fixed exchange rate is when a country ties the value of its currency to some other widely-used commodity or currency.

Capital Account: Definition, Measurement, Examples
The capital account measures things like patent rights, and is a critical part of a country's balance of payments. Here's the components.

What Is the Cost of Living Adjustment? (COLA)
The Cost of Living Adjustment (COLA) increases wages to match the rate of inflation. Here's how it's calculated, and its history.

History and Purpose of NAFTA
NAFTA's purpose is to increase trade in North America. Its history began in 1981, when Ronald Reagan campaigned for this free trade zone.

Advantages of NAFTA: Benefits and Positive Effects
The 6 advantages of NAFTA include quadrupling of trade, boosting growth and cutting costs. Recent statistics for all six benefits.

Dollar to Yuan Conversion: Definition, History
The dollar to yuan conversion is how many Chinese yuan you can buy with a U.S. dollar. Here is an explanation, recent trends, and history since 2000.

Flash Crash: Definition, Examples, Causes
A flash crash is when the stock, bond, or other market plummets, then rebounds. A summary of recent crashes, causes, and impact.

The Decline of the US Dollar
Will the chronic dollar lead to the collapse of the US dollar? Here are reasons why the safe harbor currency may not collapse and reasons it may. Page 2.

What Is Being Done to Control Inflation?
What is the Federal Reserve doing to control inflation? Find out the tools the Fed uses to manage inflation and even the expectation of inflation.

What Are Stocks? Definition, Types, Incl. Derivatives
Stocks allow you to own a share of a public corporation, so you can profit from earnings growth and dividends.

Crude Oil Prices Predictions
Oil prices will average $45/b in the second half of 2016 and $52/b in 2017. 3 reasons for volatile prices. Predictions for 2016-2040.

Unemployment: Definition, Formula, Causes
Unemployment is people who do not have a job, have actively looked for work in the past four weeks, and are currently available for work.

Capital Goods: Definition, Examples, Effect on Economy
Capital goods are the machinery, equipment, and buildings businesses use to create supply. Examples. How it differs from consumer goods.

How the Price of Crude Oil Affects Gas Prices
Crude oil prices affect 71% of gas prices. Oil prices are volatile. Here's how the price of crude oil affects gas prices from 2008 to the present.

U.S. Trade Deficit by Country: Current Stats, Issues
Here's a list of countries the United States has the largest trade deficits with that explains why American can't make everything it needs.

Value of the US Dollar: Trends, Causes, Impacts
The value of the U.S. dollar is measured in 3 ways: exchange rates, Treasury yields and foreign currency reserves. Here's what they're telling you.

What Is Hyperinflation: Definition, Causes, Examples
Hyperinflation is when prices rise more than 50% a month. Here's the causes, some examples, and how to survive.

Cost-Push Inflation Definition Causes and Examples
Cost-push inflation causes rising prices by driving up the costs of supply. It doesn't occur very often, but when it does, it's devastating.

U.S. Dollar Index Historical Data
The dollar index measures the U.S. dollar's value against a basket of foreign currencies. Here's the USDX and the trade-weighted H-10 index.

What Are the Different Types of Bonds
There are 5 different types of bonds: Treasury, savings, agency, municipal, and corporate. Each has different durations and risk levels.

How Bonds Affect Mortgage Interest Rates
Bonds affect mortgage interest rates because they both appeal to investors who want a fixed return and low risk. Here's how that works.

How Bonds Affect the Stock Market
Usually, when stock prices go up, bond values go down. Investors like stocks when the economy is strong, while bonds are a safe haven investment.

Junk Bonds: Definition, Pros, Cons, Ratings
Junk bonds are corporate bonds that have a higher risk of default and a higher return. Pros and cons. Why a person would invest in them.

Municipal Bonds: Definition, How They Work
Municipal bonds are loans to city or state governments. They're tax-free, and usually safe. Here's what you need to know before investing.

Who Owns the Federal Reserve
The Federal Reserve is owned by its member banks, but the Chairman is appointed by Congress. Find out how the Fed actually works.

U.S. Department of State: What It Does, Economic Impact
The State Department oversees America's relations with other countries. How it carries that out on a day-to-day basis. Role of the Secretary of State.

US Department of Treasury: What It Does, Its Effect
The US Treasury Department collects federal taxes and finances the public debt. How it affects you and the U.S. economy.

Department of Commerce: How It Affects the US Economy
The Department of Commerce helps to set both domestic and international trade policy.

How Hedge Funds Created the Financial Crisis
Hedge funds invested in subprime mortgage-backed securities and other derivatives. Here's how it was the true cause of the financial crisis.

Exchange Rates: Definition, Types
An exchange rate is how much the dollar, or any other foreign currency, is worth compared to another country's currency. What makes them change.

The Decline of the US Dollar vs Collapse
The decline of the US dollar is very different from a collapse. Learn why a dollar index falls, the causes, and how to protect yourself from both.

Dow Jones Averages: Definition, Indices, Origins
The Dow Jones Averages include the Industrial Average (DJIA), the Transportation Average and the Utility Average. Here's what they tell you.

Mutual Funds: Definition, Pros, Cons, Types
Mutual funds are compilations of various types of individual stocks, bonds or other investment assets. Each has a manager who decides which security to buy and sell. They normally have a goal that guides the manager's investment decision. , how they are different from stocks, and how they impact the US economy.

What Is the New York Stock Exchange?
Tthe New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the world's largest stock trading platform. Here's how it works, and why it is important to the U.S. economy.

Council of Economic Advisers: Definition, Role, Effect
The Council of Economic Advisers is a three-member group of distinguished economists that advises the President on economic policy.

What Does NASDAQ Stand For? Then and Now
What does NASDAQ stand for? Learn about what it stands for, the difference between NASDAQ, NYSE, Dow and S&P 500, and NASDAQ bubbles and crashes.

FOMC Meetings: Schedule and Statement Summaries
The FOMC kept the Fed funds rate at 0.5% in its July 28 meeting. Here's why it may raise rates in September. Learn more about FOMC meetings.

Junk Bond Market: Trends, History, Effect on Economy
Junk bonds are corporate bonds that have a higher risk of default, but also provide a higher return. Here's the pros and cons.

Should I Buy Gold: Pros, Cons, Who Should Buy
Should you buy gold? Here are the pros and cons, and why every investor should have some gold in their portfolio.

Commodities Futures: Definition, How They Work
Commodities futures are agreements to buy or sell oil, food, or other raw materials at a future date at a particular price. Impact on prices. Risks.

What Factors Determine Oil Prices?
Oil prices are determined by commodities market trading. The 3 factors that impact them are supply, demand, and reserves.

Carbon Emissions Definition and Trading
Learn the carbon emissions definition and how carbon emissions trading could become the new bitcoin form of currency and save the planet.

What Makes Oil Prices So High?
Oil prices in 2015 rebounded slightly from a 40% drop in 2014. What is causing the rise of high oil prices? Read about this here.

History of Black Friday: When Did It Really Start?
The history of Black Friday began in the 19th century. Here are the critical facts about laws, parades, and myths. Sales history since 2008.

Cyber Monday: What It Is, When It Starts, Sales Trends
Cyber Monday 2016 is on November 18. Sales rose 17% to $2 billion in 2014. This powerful economic trend exhibits one of the shifts in retail spending.

G8 Summit: Definition, Members, What Happened
At the annual G8 Summit, the eight leaders of the developed world meet to further their economic goals. Here's what really happens.

What Is the G20? Members, Summit Meetings, History
The G20 is a group of 20 nations that represent 85% of the global economy. The annual summit meetings address the world's crises.

IMF: Definition, Chief, Functions, Members, Role
The IMF is a worldwide organization that works with its 189 member countries to stabilize the global economy. Here's its history and who runs it.

What Is NATO? Purpose, History, Members and Alliances
NATO is an alliance of 28 members that agree to defend its North Atlantic members. News, purpose, members, history, relationship with Russia.

Financial Markets - Definition, Types and Function
An introduction to the financial markets, including stocks, bonds, commodities, forex, derivatives and their exchanges.

Federal Banking and Financial Regulations
Federal regulations for the financial industry include Dodd-Frank, Sarbanes-Oxley and Glass Steagall. What are they, and do they prevent crises?

What Are Bonds, and How Do They Work?
Bonds are loans to the government or corporations. They have less risk and return than stocks. Pros and cons. How they protect you from recession.

Commodities: Definition Meaning and How They Work
Commodities are natural resources like food, energy, and metals. A description of the commodities markets and how commodities futures work.

Why Are Gas Prices So High?
Why are gas prices so high? It's caused more by futures traders than supply and demand. Here's an overview of high gas prices from 2008 - 2015.

Warren Buffett: Biography, Quotes, Buffett Indicator
Warren Buffett's success with Berkshire Hathaway has made him one of the world's richest men. Read his biography to find out why.

Demand Curve: Definition, Types and How It Works
The demand curve plots out the demand schedule, which is the quantity demanded at different prices. Types of curves, determinants and shifts.

Five Determinants of Demand with Examples and Formula
The 5 determinants of demand are price, income, prices of related goods, tastes, and expectations. A 6th, for aggregate demand, is number of buyers.

Federal Reserve Chairman Ben S. Bernanke Biography
A biography of Federal Reserve Chairman Ben S. Bernanke. How Bernanke used creative Federal Reserve tools to fight the 2008 financial crisis.

Auto Industry Bailout (GM, Ford, Chrysler)
The auto industry bailout of GM, Ford and Chrysler cost $80 billion. Most has been recovered. What happened and whether it was worth it.

Why Some Believe We Are Headed for Another Great Depression
Recent news developments lead many to believe we're headed for another depression if it hasn't started already. Here are 5 reasons why.

Is the U.S. Headed Towards the Second Great Depression?
Recent news developments lead many to believe another depression is inevitable if it hasn't started already. Here's the arguments pro and con. Page 2.

Top Events That Changed the World in 2008
The top economic events in 2008 included the collapse of Lehman Brothers and the stock market, and government rescue of several financial firms.

Global Warming and Its Economic Impact on U.S.
Global warming causes more severe hurricanes, tornadoes and other natural disasters. But there are also pros for some industries.

Paul Krugman Biography
Paul Krugman is an influential economics columnist for The New York Times, a Princeton professor, and a Nobel Prize winner.

Paul Volcker: His Shock, His Rule, A New Bretton-Woods
Paul Volcker was the Federal Reserve Chair (1979-1987) who used 20% interest rates to end inflation. His accomplishments, bio, and influence.

Lawrence (Larry) Summers Profile
Larry Summers is Barack Obama's former Director of the National Economic Council, and Treasury Secretary under Bill Clinton.

Bank Bailout: Bill, Cost, Impact, How It Passed
What exactly was in the 2008 bank bailout bill, how much was actually spent, and how well it addressed the financial crisis.

Timothy Geithner: Biography, Affect on Economy
Tim Geithner is the Treasury Secretary from 2009-2013. His role in the financial crisis, as architect of TARP, and early career.

Kimberly Amadeo Testimonials
Kimberly Amadeo is the President of World Money Watch. Here are testimonials about her work.

Top USA Future Economic Trends
These top five trends show why the United States won't ever regain its pre-recession position. They explain why there will be another crisis.

Haiti Earthquake: Facts, Damage, Effects on Economy
Haiti's earthquake impacted its economy by driving down growth 5.1%. Its damage totaled $8.7 billion.

2008 Financial Crisis: Causes, Costs, Could It Reoccur
The 2008 financial crisis is the worst economic disaster since the Great Depression. Here are its causes, costs, and how it could reoccur.

US Economy Collapse: What Will Happen, How to Prepare
Will the U.S. economy collapse? If so, when and what will happen? How to prepare for and survive an economic collapse.

Government Shutdown: What It Means, Effect, History
A U.S. government shutdown occurs when our elected officials can't agree on a budget. Find out why it happens, the effects, and its history.

What Is the Minimum Wage: Pros and Cons
The minimum wage is a level set by government to ensure workers have enough income to provide a decent standard of living. What are the pros and cons?

Living Wage: Define, Calculate, Compare to Minimum Wage
The living wage is a measurement of how much workers much receive to provide an adequate amount of food, clothing and shelter.

US Economic Outlook: For 2016 and Beyond
The U.S. economic outlook is expansion for 2016 and beyond. Here's the latest forecasts for GDP growth, job creation and oil production.

Welfare Programs: Definition, List, Myths vs Facts
Welfare programs are government subsidies to the poor. Welfare myths and facts. List of top programs like TANF, Medicaid, Food Stamps, SSI.

Bush Economic Stimulus Package: Pros, Cons, Did It Work
President George Bush launched an economic stimulus package in 2008 to head off the recession. It didn't work.

US Debt and How It Affects the Economy
The US debt is more than $19 trillion, the largest in the world. Here are the 3 reasons it grew so large, and how it damages U.S. economic growth.

When Did the Great Depression Start
The Great Depression started in 1929. The economy contracted in August, and the stock market crashed in October.

Is the Economy Getting Better
Is the economy getting better? Here are 5 reasons it's getting better, and 5 reasons it's getting worse. Review the facts to make up your own mind.

Stimulus Checks: Who Received Them, How Much Was Spent
Economic stimulus checks totaled $13 billion in 2009. Here's who received them, other tax benefits, and comparison to 2008 stimulus checks.

U.S. Annual Federal Tax Revenue: Present and Past
The federal government will collect $3.644 trillion in taxes for FY 2017. Who really pays? Annual federal revenues since 1789.

Current US Federal Government Spending
U.S. Federal government spending for FY 2017 is $4.147 trillion. The 3 most expensive programs are Social Security, Defense, and Medicare.

What Is the Fair Tax Plan? Pros, Cons, Effect
The Fair Tax plan is a proposal to replaces the income tax with a sales tax. Pros and cons, and how it would affect the U.S. economy.

Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (JGTRRA)
The Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (JGTRRA) reduced capital gains and dividend taxes, ended the recession, but increased the U.S. debt.

John McCain 2008 Presidential Economic Platform
During the 2008 Presidential campaign, John McCain talked about balancing the budget by reducing benefits and cutting taxes.

Obama 2008 Economic Promises and Platform
In 2008, Democratic Presidential Candidate Barack Obama's promised many changes to fix the economy. What were they, and how well did he keep them?

Deficit vs Debt: Effect on Each Other and Economy
The deficit is when annual spending is greater than revenue. The debt is the accumulation of each year's deficit. How they affect the economy.

Federal Budget Process
The federal budget process gives Congress the power to control U.S. spending. It begins a full year before the fiscal year starts. Here's the process.

How Real Estate Affects the US Economy
Real estate contributes to economic output, household wealth, and consumer spending. How falling real estate prices caused the recession.

What Is a Recession? Examples, Impact, Benefits
A recession is an economic contraction that lasts for at least six months. Impact, examples, indicators, causes, difference from depression,

Hurricane Katrina Facts: Damage and Economic Effects
Hurricane Katrina was the most destructive natural disaster in U.S. history. It struck both heavily-populated areas and Gulf oil fields.

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT): What Is It, Who Pays?
The Alternative Minimum Tax is designed to make sure everyone pays at least some tax. It doesn't kick in unless incomes are $52,800 or more.

Japan's Economy: Recession, Effect on U.S. and World
Japan's economy is still struggling with deflation and slow growth. Here's what caused it, and how it affects the U.S. economy.

Causes of Economic Recession: List and Examples
What caused the 2008 recession? Many factors that then lead to a loss of confidence. Here are examples from the 2008, 2001, and prior recessions.

History of U.S. Recessions: Causes, Lengths, Stats
The history of U.S. recessions since the Great Depression. Their causes, length, GDP (original and most recent), and unemployment.

Components of GDP: Explanation, Formula, Chart
The 4 components of GDP are Consumption (69%), Business Investment (18%), Government (18%), and Net Exports (-3%). Explanation, formula, statistics.

What Is the GDP Growth Rate? (Explanation & Formula)
The GDP growth rate tells you how fast a county's economy is growing. It compares real GDP from one quarter to the next.

Hurricane Gustav and the Economic Impact
How did Hurricane Gustav affect the U.S. Economy?

Hurricane Ike and Its Impact on the US Economy
Hurricane Ike hit Texas on September 13, 2008. It was the third costliest hurricane in U.S. history. Damage statistics. Impact on economy.

The Great Depression of 1929: Causes and How It Ended
The Great Depression of 1929 was a 10-year global economic crisis where world trade fell 65%. Here's causes, impact, and chances of recurrence.

Savings and Loans Crisis: Definition, Cause, Cost
The Savings and Loans Crisis in the late 1980s resulted in the bankruptcy of half of the Savings and Loan banks in the United States.

What Is GDP? Definition of Gross Domestic Product
GDP is the measurement of a country's total output. Here's how Gross Domestic Product is calculated, real vs nominal, and GDP vs GNP.

Gold Standard History and Facts
Understand gold standard history, including when the U.S. went off the gold standard, and why. Here's why it's still an asset of real value.

Gold Standard: Definition, Pros, Cons, Can We Return?
The gold standard is when a country agrees to redeem currency for its value in gold. How it worked, pros and cons, and why we can't return.

Small Business Loans: Sources, Pros and Cons
Small business loans are funds that must be repaid over time with interest. Here are 4 types, and the pros and cons of each.

Happy Valentines Day Impact on Retail Sales and Economy
Valentine's Day retail sales in 2016 are $19.7 billion, a new record. Here's who's buying what, and where they're buying it.

Bretton Woods Monetary System and Agreement
The Bretton Woods Agreement defined the relationship between gold and the dollar. This new monetary system changed the world.

U.S. GDP: Latest Statistics, How to Use Them
U.S. GDP was $18.437 trillion in Q2 2016. How that compares to Real GDP, the growth rate, GDP per capita, and debt to GDP ratio.

U.S. GDP Growth: By Year, Compared to Business Cycle
The U.S. GDP growth rate is tied to the phase of the business cycle. Here's an explanation and comparison for each year.

Real GDP Per Capita: Definition, Formula, Data
Real GDP per capita is a country's economic output for each person adjusting for inflation. Formula, how to calculate, annual data since 1946.

The History of the American Dream
Learn about the history of the American Dream, first outlined in the Declaration of Independence to legally protect the pursuit of happiness.

Velocity of Money: Definition, Formula, U.S. by Year
The velocity of money is how many times a dollar, euro, or unit of currency is used in purchases. It's M2/NGDP. Here's why it's slowing down.

Obama Economic Stimulus Package: How ARRA Worked
Obama's economy stimulus package was passed in February 2009 as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Did it work?

NASA Budget: Current Funding, History
NASA costs $19.3 billion, a small portion of the Federal budget. Each dollar spent creates $10 of economic growth. Learn about NASA budget priorities.

FY 2014 U.S. Federal Budget and Spending
The U.S. Federal budget for FY 2014, why it was never approved, and what was actually spent instead.

Deficit by Year: Compared to GDP, Debt, and Events
The U.S. Federal budget deficit (and the occasional surplus) by year since 1929. Compared to the increase in the debt, and what caused both.

What Is Common Stock? Definition, How It Works
Common stocks are the most popular form of ownership of public corporations. Prices rise and fall daily, since they are traded on stock markets.

Tariffs: Definition, Examples, Pros and Cons
Tariffs are taxes or duties levied on imports. They are designed to protect domestic industries and jobs. Tthey often do the opposite. Examples.

Average Income in USA: Family, Household, History
The average U.S. income is worse today than in 2000. Levels are falling because the government has focused on debt reduction instead of job creation.

Reasons for U.S. Income Inequality
U.S. income inequality has worsened significantly in the past 30 years. What is the cause, what can be done about it, and how does it affect you?

FY 2012 U.S. Federal Budget and Spending
The FY 2012 budget was disrupted by the debt ceiling crisis and Budget Control Act of 2011. It passed in December 2011. Here's what was spent.

US Military Budget: Components, Challenges, Growth
The US military budget is $773 billion once you add components hidden in other budgets. Here's the breakout since 2006.

How to Find Jobs in My Area
To find jobs in your area, take these 5 steps to save time and avoid frustration. They include government jobs, work-at-home jobs, and online gigs.

How Is the Fed Monetizing Debt?
How is the Federal Reserve monetizing debt? By buying U.S. Treasuries. Where does it get the money? Like other central banks -- out of thin air.

What Is the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau protects consumers' financial security. History, what it's done so far, and the role of Elizabeth Warren.

War on Terror: Facts, Costs, Timeline
The War on Terror cost more than $1.7 trillion in emergency funding alone. Here's details on what was spent each year, and its effect.

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Facts: Economic Effects, Cause
The true costs of the Exxon Valdez oil spill include not only economic losses, but also loss to wildlife. Unfortunately, these costs continue.

Stock Market Crash of 1929: Causes, Effects and Facts
The stock market crash of 1929 signaled the Great Depression. The facts behind what happened, its causes and its effects.

Debt to GDP Ratio: Definition, Calculation and Use
The debt-to-GDP ratio is a country's debt as a percentage of its total economic output (measured by GDP.) How to calculate and use it. Tipping point.

Unemployment Benefit Extensions: Definition, Causes
Unemployment benefits were extended in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to a total of 99 weeks in response to high unemployment rates.

Structural Unemployment: Definition, Causes, Examples
Structural unemployment is defined as unemployment caused by a mismatch between jobs and skills, or other long-term changes in the economy.

FY 2013 U.S. Federal Budget and Spending
The U.S. Federal budget for FY 2013 was never officially approved. Here's the budget compared to actual spending.

Gas Prices in 2008: Highest, Lowest, Causes
In 2008, gas prices nearly reached $4.20 in July before plummeting to $1.87 in December. What really caused it?

Fiscal Policy: Definition, Types, Objectives,Tools
Fiscal policy is how the government uses taxing and spending to expand or contract economic growth. How it differs from monetary policy.

Gross National Product (GNP) : Definition and Examples
Gross National Product (GNP) is the total economic output of a country's citizens and companies, no matter where they are located.

What Is a Stock Market Correction? When Is It a Crash?
A stock market correction is when prices fall 10% from the all-time high. The difference between a correction, crash and a bear market.

Stock Market Crash: Definition, Examples,Cause,Impact
A stock market crash is when the stock market loses more than 10% in value in one or two days. Here are examples, causes, and how it affects you.

New Home Sales: Definition and Economic Indicator
The new home sale is when the buyer signs an agreement to buy a house from the builder. It's the first indicator of future housing trends.

OPEC: Definition, Members, History, Goals
OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is a cartel of 12 countries that produce 41% of the world oil.

Ponzi Scheme: History, Examples, vs Pyramid Scheme
A Ponzi pyramid scheme relies on new buyers to generate profits for the old buyers. Find out how it's different from a legitimate MLM.

Real Estate: Definition, Types, How the Industry Works
The Real estate definition is property, buildings, underground, and air rights. The 4 types are residential, commercial, industrial and land.

Reserve Requirement: Definition, Impact on Economy
The Federal Reserve requires that banks only keep $1 out of each $10 you deposit on hand each night. Here's why this is not only legal but beneficial.

Discretionary Fiscal Policy: Tools, Types
Discretionary fiscal policy is the portion of government taxes and spending that can be changed from each year.

Dollar Peg: Definition, How It Works, Why It's Done
Countries peg their currency to the dollar by using a fixed exchange rate to keep their currency's value fixed to the dollar. How and why it's done.

Economies of Scale: Definition, Types
Economies of scale is an advantage that large companies have just by being large. Here's the types and how it differs from economies of scope.

Goldilocks Economy: Definition, Causes, Effects
A Goldilocks economy is when the economy isn't too hot, causing inflation, nor too cold, creating a recession. How to tell if you're in one.

Liquidity: Definition, Ratios, How It's Managed
Liquidity is the amount of capital available, and how easily it is to use. Here's how central banks and businesses manage liquidity.

What Is a Manufacturing Job? Types and Changes
What is a manufacturing job? Manufacturing jobs create new products from raw materials. They pay well, but are disappearing thanks to robotics.

What Are Monopolies - Definition and History
Monopolies are the sole provider of a good or service. Here's the definition, 4 ways they prevent free trade, and 1 reason they're needed.

Mortgage-Backed Securities: Definition, Types
Mortgage-backed securities are tradeable assets backed by mortgages, allowing banks more cash to make loans. All went well, until housing prices fell.

Multilateral Trade Agreements: Definition and Examples
Multilateral trade agreements are between three or more countries at once. Here's more on the WTO, GATT, Doha, and major U.S. agreements.

Natural Rate of Unemployment: Definition, Trends
The natural unemployment rate is the combination of frictional, structural and surplus unemployment. It's currently between 4.7% and 5.8%.

Off Budget: Definition and Examples
Off budget revenue is when the government borrows from the Social Security Trust Fund. That makes budget deficits seem less than they really are.

Recession: Definition and Meaning
A recession is a widespread decline in economic activity that lasts six months or more. 5 factors that indicate a recession. 2 specific definitions.

Securities: Definition, Effects, and Types
Securities are stocks, bonds and other investments that allow ownership of assets without taking physical possession.

Federal Poverty Level: Definition, Guidelines, Chart
The 2016 Federal poverty level is the guideline that determines who can receive assistance. It's used for Medicaid, food stamps, and Obamacare.

Bear Market: Definition, vs Bull, Are We in One?
A bear market is when the price of an asset class declines at least 20%. However, a bear market rally can trick you.

Black Tuesday: Definition, Cause, Kickoff to Depression
Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929) is the worst day in NYSE history, starting the Depression. Investors lost $14 billion. What happened, cause, impact.

Budget Deficit: Definition, How It Affects the Economy
A budget deficit occurs whenever a government spends more than it makes, which is nearly every year. Find out why and how it leads to debt.

Bull Market: Definition, Examples, Causes, Why Name
A bull market is when prices of any investment category rise. Definitions of bull vs bear, secular bull. What drives a stock bull market. History.

Current Account Deficit: Definition, Components, Causes
A current account deficit is when a country imports more goods, services, and capital than it exports. Here are its causes and effects.

Financial Derivatives: Definition, Types, Risks
Financial derivatives are contracts to buy or sell underlying assets. They include options, swaps and futures contracts. Why they're so dangerous.

Asset Bubble: Definition, Causes, Examples, Protection
An asset bubble is inflation in specific assets, such as currencies, gold, or stocks. Here's what causes them and how to protect yourself.

Banco del Sur: Definition, Members, Purpose, History
Banco del Sur is development bank that planned to replace the World Bank in Latin American. What happened, lessons for other regional banks.

What Is Commercial Real Estate: Definition, Value
Commercial real estate is property that produces income, such as offices, stores, and apartments. Here's its value and how it affects the economy.

Comparative Advantage: Definition, Theory, Examples
Comparative advantage is what a country produces better than other countries for the lowest opportunity cost. U.S. comparative advantage.

Deregulation: Definition, Pros, Cons, Examples
Deregulation is when the government removes restrictions in an industry. Here's pros, cons and examples in the banking, energy and airline industries.

Small Business: Definition, Effect on Economy
Small businesses are companies that employ less than 500 workers. Importance to economy. Impact of Obamacare and Bush tax cuts. Funding.

Shadow Inventory: Definition, Impact on Economy
The shadow inventory includes foreclosed homes that were not yet for sale. Here's how this pipeline restricted the housing market growth for years.

Short Selling Stocks: Definition, Pros,Cons
Short selling stocks is borrowing shares, selling them, then buying them back later to replace the borrowed shares. Who uses it, pros, cons.

Glass Steagall Act: Definition, Purpose, Repeal
The Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 separated risky investment banking activity from depositors' funds. Its 1999 repeal led to the 2008 financial crisis.

Volcker Rule
The Volcker Rule prohibits banks from increasing risk by trading for their own profit. It's part of the Dodd-Frank Reform Act. Summary and impact.

2010 Patient Protection & Affordable Care Act Summary
A summary of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Purpose, cost, and roll-out of changes.

How Will Obamacare Affect Me
How Obamacare affects you depends on your income. You may pay higher taxes, and your health plan may change. Here are more changes.

Obamacare Subsidies: Are You Eligible?
Obamacare subsidies are available to 10.4 million Americans, but 60% missed out. Find out if you're eligible, and how to get them.

Will You Have to Pay Obamacare Taxes This Year?
Obamacare taxes individuals and businesses to pay for subsidies. Here are the taxes, who is impacted, and when they take effect.

Obamacare Definition: The Basics You Need to Know
Obamacare is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, and it mandates healthcare insurance for all. Here's what you need to know.

Obamacare Ruling: Summary, Background
The Supreme Court ruled that the Affordable Care Act was legal, based on the idea that the Federal government has the right to tax.

Obamacare Pros and Cons: 10 Good Points of Each Side
Obamacare has many pros and cons. The ACA provides affordable insurance for some, and taxes others. Here's how it affects you.

Economic Contraction: Definition, Examples
An economic contraction is a decline in economic output. It's normally accompanied with falling incomes and rising unemployment. Examples since 1920.

Economic Boom
An economic boom is rising economic activity rises in national output, productivity, and income. Unemployment drops. Examples in U.S. history.

Roaring Twenties
The Roaring Twenties, or 1920s, is when the U.S. economy expanded, shifting from a traditional to free market model.

The Great Recession of 2008: Explanation with Dates
The seeds of the Great Recession started in 2006 when housing prices began to fall. Here's a explanation of causes, effects, and solutions.

The Great Recession of 2008: Explanation with Dates
The seeds of the Great Recession started in 2006 when housing prices began to fall. Here's a explanation of causes, effects, and solutions.

2009 Financial Crisis: Explanation, Timeline, Bailouts
Follow the timeline of the financial crisis in 2009, with links to 2007 and 2008.

4 Real Ways to Create More Jobs
The government can create jobs with monetary policy, tax cuts and spending. Which way is the best for job creation?

Mixed Economy: Definition, Pros, Cons, Examples
A mixed economy combines the advantages and disadvantages of market, command and traditional economies. Here's examples and U.S. status.

Types of Inflation: The 4 Most Critical Plus 9 More
There are 4 types of inflation: creeping, walking, galloping and hyper. How cost-push and demand-pull cause them. Plus asset, core and wage inflation.

Types of Inflation: The 4 Most Critical Plus 9 More
There are 4 types of inflation: creeping, walking, galloping and hyper. How cost-push and demand-pull cause them. Plus asset, core and wage inflation.

What Is the Bank Reform Bill of 2010
The 2010 bank reform bill regulated hedge funds and derivatives. It added consumer rights. It clarified bank regulations. It ended

Dollar Value Today: Why It's Less, How It's Measured
The value of a dollar today is much lower than it was 100 years ago. Comparisons through the decades and what drove the dollar down.