Women's History Sitemap - Page 1 2016-09-26

Ednah Dow Cheney, Transcendentalist and Social Reformer
Ednah Dow Cheney was a well-known figure in the Boston circles of abolitionists, Transcendentalists, women's rights supporters and free religionists.

Suffragists - Women Who Worked for the Vote
Women who worked for the vote for women, whether called woman suffragists, women's suffrage advocates, or suffragettes. Includes Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt -- but also some lesser-known women like Lucy Stone and Lucy Burns.

Alice Duer Miller Index
Women's suffrage advocate Alice Duer Miller wrote scathing sarcastic poems as part of her contribution to the effort to win the vote for women.

Anti-Suffrage Arguments and Activists
Anti-Suffrage Arguments and Activists: arguments against women's suffrage. Why women should not have the legal right to vote. Not all women supported woman suffrage, and many formed organizations or wrote or spoke for what was called anti-suffrage.

"Birther" Controversies and the Wars of the Roses
Were claims of kings involved in the Wars of the Roses tainted by birth controversies? Edward IV, Henry VII, and lost princes had heritage doubted.

Legitimate Enough Heritage? Henry Tudor's Claim to the Throne
Henry Tudor's claim to be a Lancastrian king comes through his mother, Margaret Beaufort. But was her heritage legitimate enough to make this claim?

Princes Imprisoned, Illegitimacy Declared (1483)
The Princes in the Tower -- you may know of the controversies about their deaths, but how about the controversy over their births? Were they legitimate?

More Lost Princes? (1487, 1490 - 1496)
What's the claim of Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck to be king of England? What birth claims did they make, and who backed their claims?

Was King Edward IV Illegitimate? (1442)
Was Edward IV illegitimate, and the heirs of his brother, the Duke of Clarence, the rightful monarchs of England?

Was Edward of Westminster Really the Son of Henry VI? (1453)
Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VI, was killed in the Wars of the Roses. Was he really the son of Henry VI? Rumors that Margaret of Anjou conceived him in adultery circulated after Edward was born.

Our Own Twelve Anti-suffragist Reasons
Alice Duer Miller, through satire, shows the clear contradiction between pairs of arguments made by the people who opposed women getting the vote.

Quotes From Women Historians: Women Writing About History
Learn about some women who have been themselves historians, documenting history -- of women, or more general history.

Alice Duer Miller: Suffrage Activist and Satirical Poet
Alice Duer Miller: profile of Alice Duer Miller, a journalist and writer known for satirical poems advocating woman suffrage.

Transcendentalist Women
Women of Transcendentalism: women in the circle with Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and others.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper: Poet and Abolitionist
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper biography: she was an African American poet and abolitionist, and after the Civil War also worked for women's rights.

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Quotes
Quotes by Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, a poet and writer who was an abolitionist, post-Civil War civil rights worker and women's rights advocate.

How Is Queen Elizabeth II Related to Queen Victoria?
How is Queen Elizabeth II related to Queen Victoria? The answer, plus the details of how that answer is derived. Bonus: some similarities.

Phyllis Schlafly Anti-Feminist Quotes
Phyllis Schlafly, an ultraconservative American writer and political activist, was best known for her anti-feminist work against the ERA in the 1970s.

Phyllis Schalfly's Stop ERA Campaign
Phyllis Schlafly's Stop ERA campaign fought against the Equal Rights Amendment throughout the 1970s. This overview looks at the anti-ERA philosophy of Stop ERA.

Phyllis Schlafly: Ultraconservative and Anti-Feminist
Phyllis Schlafly biography: profile of the ultraconservative Republican who organized to stop the Equal Rights Amendment from being ratified.

More Women Political Figures
Women in politics - more women on the political scene.

Would the ERA Force Women Into Combat?
Anti-feminist Phyllis Schlafly warned her followers about Equal Rights Amendment dangers, such as drafting females and women in combat. Eventually, there were women in combat even without a draft or an ERA.

Mary Lacey Sr. and Jr. - Salem Accused and Accuser
Mary Lacey Sr. and Mary Lacey Jr. were accused of witchcraft in the Salem witch trials; in turn they each accused others.

Lady Jane Grey: The Crown Was Claimed in Her Name
Lady Jane Grey was put on the throne after Edward VI died, but she was deposed just nine days later by Mary I.

Women Rulers of England and Great Britain
England's rulers have more often been men, because primogeniture was the practice. Meet here some women who ruled in their own right, or tried.

The Future: Reigning Queens of the United Kingdom
What is the future of reigning queens in the United Kingdom? What queens have reigned in the past, in their own right or as consorts of kings?

Empress Matilda, Lady of the English (1141, never crowned)
The Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, was named as his successor, and would have been the first reigning queen of England if her cousin hadn't stepped in.

Mary I (Mary Tudor): Ruling Queen of England
The first crowned queen regnant of England was Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. She tried to restore Catholicism to England.

Elizabeth I: Ruling Queen of England
Queen Elizabeth I, who succeeded her sister Mary I, restored the Church of England and navigated between Puritan Protestants and Roman Catholics to try to bring peace and prosperity to England.

Mary II: Co-Ruler of England
Mary II and her husband, William III and II, were made co-rulers of England after the Glorious Revolution deposed Mary's father, James II and VII.

Queen Anne: Ruling Queen of England and Great Britain
Queen Anne, the last of the Stuart monarchs, inherited the crown from her brother-in-law William, who had co-ruled with Mary II before her death.

Queen Victoria: Ruling Queen of Great Britain
Queen Victoria was the longest-ruling monarch of Great Britain. Her role as a national icon helped name the times the Victorian Era.

Queen Elizabeth II: Queen of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth
Queen Elizabeth II's reign has been marked by the Empire becoming a Commonwealth, and diminishing roles and prestige for the royal family.

How Was Queen Victoria Related to Prince Albert?
Prince Albert and Queen Victoria were related before marriage. Here's how they're related, including information on the uncle they had in common.

Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians, Saxon Ruler
Aethelflaed, daughter of Alfred the Great, given the title Lady of the Mercians after her husband died, won battles with the Danes and invaded Wales.

Nellie Bly - Investigative Journalist
Nellie Bly biography - profile of Nellie Bly, also known as Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman, famous newspaper reporter.

African American Women
Uncover the history of African American women: the history of black women in America, from slavery through Reconstruction, Harlem Renaissance and civil rights. Biographies, organizations, events and movements.

Games - Puzzles - Quizzes - Women's History Fun and Games
Games, quizzes, and puzzles related to women's history -- crossword puzzles, word searches, quizzes and many more fun activities for individuals or for the classroom.

African American Women in Early America and in Slavery
The lives of black women in America before the Civil War ended. Slave narratives, notable African American women including Phillis Wheatley, Sojourner Truth, Sally Hemings and Harriet Tubman, bibliographies, and much more black history.

Socialism and Feminism
The relationship of socialism and feminism has been an interesting one. On the one hand, opponents often tried to redbait feminists and feminism as a way to diminish support. On the other hand, some feminists were also socialists, emphasizing the need for class equality to either accompany or take priority over sex equality.

Who Said It? -- Guess the Woman Who Said These Words...
Who said it? On each page, you'll see a quote -- and a link to the quotations page where you'll find that quote and more by some notable woman.

Who Was She? A Women's History Quiz
For each of these descriptions of notable women of history, do you know the name of the woman or can you guess? Click through at the end of the description to find the answer.

African American Women Educators
Learn about African American women who focused on education as a key factor in the black community. Most were also involved in other causes, including black women's organizations.

Abortion Speakout - 1969 Redstockings Protest
The 1969 abortion speak-out let women's voices be heard. Learn about why radical feminists staged the abortion speak-out.

Phillis Wheatley - About the Slave Poet of Colonial America
Phillis Wheatley, an African brought to America as a slave, became a published poet at the age of 18. Read a biography of Phillis Wheatley and some assessments of her literary contribution.

Profile of Sappho of Lesbos With Bibliography
Sappho biography, bibliography, and links: Sappho of Lesbos, ancient Greek poet, is known for her emotional and personal poems even though little of her writing survives.

Maria Agnesi: Mathematician, Philosopher, Philanthropist
Maria Agnesi biography - she wrote the first book on mathematics written by a woman that survives.

Abigail Adams Biography - Wife of the 2nd US President
Abigail Adams was far more than just a president's wife. She managed the family business while John was away. Her letters advocated women's rights.

Mary Cassatt Biography - Painting History
Mary Cassatt biography - a profile of Mary Cassatt, American woman who was part of the French Impressionists.

Charlotte Corday: Assassin of Marat
Charlotte Corday biography - a biography of Charlotte Corday, figure in the French Revolution, assassin of Marat.

Glass Ceiling - What Is It? Does One Exist?
Defining the term glass ceiling, especially in relation to women's history and women's rights. Is the concept still valid? Who's been breaking through?

The Personal Is Political - Meaning and Origin
Which early feminists said that the personal is political and what did they mean by this phrase? What experiences led to the essay given that title?

What Were the Goals of 1960s/1970s Feminism?
What were the goals of the feminist movement? Learn more about the feminists of the 1960s and 1970s and what they wanted to achieve for women's lives.

I Want a Wife: Legendary Feminist Essay by Judy Brady
Legendary feminist essay, one of the best remembered pieces from the premiere issue of Ms. magazine is “I Want a Wife.”.

Rule of Thumb: Does It Refer to Wife-Beating?
A man was permitted to beat his wife with a switch no thicker than his thumb -- that was almost certainly not the origin of the phrase rule of thumb.

What 1970s Feminists Did during the Women’s Movement
What did 1970s feminists do? A look at some significant actions of the 1970s feminist movement, accomplishments which still echo today.

Feminist Consciousness-Raising Groups: Women's History
An explanation of feminist consciousness-raising groups: what was the purpose of a consciousness-raising group, and what did its members do?

Lavender Menace: the Term, the Group, the Controversy
The Lavender Menace was a feminist group founded in 1970, based on a term used by Betty Friedan. Learn about the issue, the term, the group.

Betty Friedan, Key Second Wave Feminist
Betty Friedan, a key second wave American feminist, was the author of the ground-breaking book often credited with re-starting feminism.

Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision Overview
The Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision, legalizing abortions under most conditions in the United States, has shaped debate about abortion in America.

Emma Goldman: Anarchist, Feminist, Writer, Lecturer
Emma Goldman biography - a profile of the anarchist and feminist who was deported to Russia for her opposition to draft laws in World War I.

Susan B. Anthony: Key Women's Suffrage Spokesperson
Find out more about the life and women's rights organizing of Susan B. Anthony, one of the most important leaders in the women's suffrage campaign.

Womanist - Alice Walker's Term for Black Feminist
What is a womanist? Definition of the term womanist and how it relates to feminism, some history of the term, and quotes and books for further study.

Female Pharaohs: Sobeknefru
Sobeknefru was the last ruler of the 12th dynasty, she has been depicted using male objects linked to kingship.

Learn More About Women in the Ancient World and Women Rulers
Find out more about women in the ancient world and women rulers through the ages.

Female Pharaohs - Including Cleopatra and Nefertiti
The rulers of ancient Egypt, Pharaohs, were almost all men. The evidence for a few women Pharaohs is sketchy at best. Here is a list of the most likely.

Female Pharaohs: Neithhikret
Neithhikret, briefly mentioned in a story by Herodotus and elsewhere, may have been a ruler in the sixth dynasty, more than four thousand years ago.

Female Pharaohs: Ankhnesmeryre II (or Ankhesenpepe II or Ankh-Meri-Ra)
Ankhnesmeryre II may have served as a regent for her son when her husband Pepi I died.

Female Pharaohs: Wife of Djedkare-Izezi
Known only by her husband's name, she may have ruled as king in the 5th dynasty of Egypt.

Female Pharaohs: Khentkaus
Khentkaus, at the transition between the fourth and fifth dynasties of ancient Egypt, she may have been identified as a king in one inscription.

Female Pharaohs: Nimaethap or Ni-Maat-Heb
Ni-Maat-Heb or Nimaethap may have served as regent for her son, the pharaoh Djoser.

Female Pharaohs: Meryt-Neith
The evidence is by no means clear, but this first dynasty Egyptian woman is included on a seal listing pharaohs and was buried with a king's honors.

Female Pharaohs: Cleopatra
Female pharaohs: Cleopatra. Who were the women who ruled Egypt?

Cleopatra I
Women's History.

Female Pharaohs: Tausret (Twosret, Tausert, Tawosret)
More than a thousand years before Cleopatra, Tausret may have served as Pharaoh.

Female Pharaohs: Nefertiti
Female pharaohs: some claim that Nefertiti ruled under the name Smenkhkare after the death of her husband Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV).

Female Pharaohs: Hatshepsut (Maatkare)
Hatshepsut lived almost 3500 years ago, and took over as king, assuming male attire, when she ruled for her stepson.

Female Pharaohs: Ahmose-Nefertari
Ahmose-Nefertari was the sister and wife of the founder of the 18th dynasty, and served as regent, ruling for her son -- who, as was Egyptian custom, married his sister, Ahmose-Nefertari's daughter.

Female Pharaohs: Ashotep
Ashotep's son, founder of the 18th dynasty and the New Kingdom, credited his mother with ruling as regent for him.

United States v. Susan B. Anthony - 1873
A summary of the importance of the 1873 court case, United States v. Susan B. Anthony, in which suffrage leader Anthony and others illegally voted.

How Women's Lives Changed in World War II
Women and World War II: how women's lives changed during World War II, expanding some horizons, the source of gender-based violence in other cases.

Marilyn Monroe: From the Orphanage to an American Icon
A biography of one of Hollywood's most famous film stars, Marilyn Monroe. What was her background? What were key successes? How did she die?

Women and World War II - Concentration Camps and the Holocaust
Gender issues related to the Nazi concentration camps and the Holocaust. What was the experience like for women? How was this different?

Leni Riefenstahl: Moviemaker for the Third Reich
Leni Riefenstahl profile - film-maker, including propaganda films for Nazi Germany and Hitler though she said she didn't know what was happening.

Medieval and Renaissance British Women
Women of Britain in medieval times - abbesses, saints, ordinary women, queens, rulers and more.

Women of Medieval and Renaissance France - Frankish Women and France in the Middle Ages
Women of France in the Middle Ages - Carolingian and Frankish Women of Medieval times.

Eleanor of Aquitaine’s Descendants Through Joan
Eleanor of Aquitaine's daughter Joan married the King of Sicily, then Raymond VI of Toulouse. She had two children who survived to marriageable age.

Eleanor of Aquitaine’s Descendants Through Henry III, King of England
Eleanor of Aquitaine's children, grandchildren and great grandchildren include the children and grandchildren of her youngest child, King John of England. Descendants through John include Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, Edward III, Richard II, and then other kings of England descended through other sons of Edward III.

Eleanor of Aquitaine's Descendants Through King John
Eleanor of Aquitaine's children, grandchildren and great grandchildren include the children and grandchildren of her youngest, King John of England.

Eleanor of Aquitaine's Descendants Through Eleanor Montfort
Eleanor of Aquitaine's children, grandchildren and great grandchildren include the children and grandchildren of her youngest child, King John of England. Descendants through John include Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, Edward III, Richard II, and then other kings of England descended through other sons of Edward III.

Eleanor of Aquitaine’s Descendants Through Isabella of England
Eleanor of Aquitaine's children, grandchildren and great grandchildren include the children and grandchildren of her youngest child, King John of England. Descendants through John include Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, Edward III, Richard II, and then other kings of England descended through other sons of Edward III.

Eleanor of Aquitaine’s Descendants Through Joan of England
Eleanor of Aquitaine's children, grandchildren and great grandchildren include the children and grandchildren of her youngest child, King John of England. Descendants through John include Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, Edward III, Richard II, and then other kings of England descended through other sons of Edward III.

Eleanor of Aquitaine’s Descendants Through Richard, Earl of Cornwall
Eleanor of Aquitaine's children, grandchildren and great grandchildren include the children and grandchildren of her youngest child, King John of England. Descendants through John include Henry III, Edward I, Edward II, Edward III, Richard II, and then other kings of England descended through other sons of Edward III.

Petronilla of Aquitaine’s Children
Eleanor of Aquitaine inherited the right to rule Aquitaine. She had a brother who predeceased her, and a sister Petronilla whose children were the first cousins of the French and English royal children born to Eleanor.

Siblings of Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine inherited the right to rule Aquitaine. Her brother predeceased her, and a sister Petronilla had children who survived her.

Malleus Maleficarum: The European Witch Hunters' Manual
The Malleus Maleficarum was meant to be a manual for inquisitors. It laid foundations for much of the early modern period's witch persecutions.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline: Follow the Events
What happened in Salem Massachusetts in 1692? This detailed timeline includes what happened before, during and after the Salem witch trials.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - September 1692
September 1692: the circle of accusations and examinations grew still wider. One man was pressed to death for refusing to plead guilty or not guilty, and eight more were hanged. Even more were convicted and condemned to hang.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - October 1692
October 1692: the tide turned in the Salem Witch trials, with more criticism of the use of spectral evidence.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - November and December 1692
November and December 1692: A new court was appointed to hear the remaining witchcraft cases in Salem and nearby towns. With winter arriving, some prisoners were released on payment of bonds or jail costs.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - 1693
In 1693, a few new accusations and arrests were made, and the new Superior Court disposed of the remaining cases of accused witches in Salem and surrounding towns.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - After the Trials
After the Salem Witch trials: the people affected by the Salem Witch trials dealt with the aftermath of the accusations, trials and executions, including property implications and clearing names of those who'd been accused or convicted.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - January 1692
In Salem Village in January, 1692, several girls began exhibiting behavior that was attributed to witchcraft.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - February 1692
In February, 1692, the behavior of several girls at Salem Village was diagnosed as being caused by witchcraft, and accusations began.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - March 1692
In March, 1692, Salem Village saw more accusations and investigations for witchcraft, and the accusations spread beyond Salem.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - April 1692
April, 1692, saw ever-widening accusations and investigations for witchcraft in Salem Village and surrounding areas.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - May 1692
In May, 1692, a court was appointed to hear evidence against the many accused witches and decide on their fate. More accusations continued to be leveled. Arguments over the legitimacy of spectral evidence surfaced.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - June 1692
In June of 1692, the special court convened to hear cases in what's known as the Salem witch trials, and Salem saw the first guilty verdicts and the first execution for witchcraft. New accusations and arrests continued.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - July 1692
July, 1692, saw more accusations, trials, guilty verdicts and executions in the Salem Witch trials. A letter of protest asked Boston ministers to intervene.

Salem Witch Trials Timeline - August 1692
August 1692 saw more accusations, examinations, trials, verdicts and executions in the Salem Witch Trials.

Signing the Devil's Book - Salem Witch Trials Glossary
Signing the devil's book: this was an important accusation against the supposed witches in the Salem witch trials of 1692. What did it signify?

Woman and Her Wishes: Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 1853
Thomas Wentworth Higginson pleads the case for women's equality in 1853 in a remarkable document.

Women's Suffrage - 1848-1864
Women's Suffrage: women struggled for the right to vote, from the 1848 Women's Rights Convention to just before the split in the women's suffrage movement after the Civil War over the priority of black male suffrage. The radical idea of votes for women was commonly called Woman Suffrage at the time.

Famous Margaret Sanger Quotes (And Misquotes)
Quotes by Margaret Sanger, nurse and advocate of birth control at a time when it was largely illegal. Includes a list of debunked Sanger quotes.

Is Anna and the King (or The King and I) a True Story?
Anna Leonowens and her six years at the Court of Siam: her story has captured the imagination of generations of Americans. But how much of it is true and how much is exaggeration?

Anna Leonowens: Western Teacher in Siam
Anna Leonowens -- the

Roman Women
Saints to empresses to ordinary women: the status and experience of women in ancient and classical Rome.

Women's Suffrage - 1865-1899 - Woman Suffrage
Women's Suffrage: women struggle for the right to vote. Find articles and biographies for more in-depth information on the women's suffrage struggle from the end of the Civil War through the healing of the major split in the women's rights movement. (Commonly called Woman Suffrage at the time.)

Sojourner Truth Quotes - Abolition, Women's Rights
Sojourner Truth was born a slave and her famous

Women's History Holidays, Commemorations, Celebrations
Special holidays and celebrations, commemorations of women's history. Includes Women's History Month, International Women's Day, Women's Equality Day, Mother's Day ... and also women's history perspectives on such holidays as Christmas and Thanksgiving.

Summer and Women's History
Features about summer and women's history.

Thanksgiving and Women's History
Celebrate Thanksgiving with About Women's History.

Carrie Chapman Catt Quotes: About Suffrage, Women, More
Quotes by Carrie Chapman Catt. leader of a wing of the woman suffrage movement in America. Includes quotes about racial equality and white supremacy.

Marian Wright Edelman Quotes: Advocate for Children
Quotes by Marian Wright Edelman, advocate of children's rights and justice for children.

Marian Wright Edelman Biography: Children's Advocate
A biography of Marian Wright Edelman, president and founder of the Children's Defense Fund and advocate of rights and justice for children.

Julia Child
Julia Child, cookbook author and television cooking instructor, is known for her dramatic style, distinctive voice, and making French cooking popular with American audiences.

Julia Child Quotes
Quotes by Julia Child, whose promotion of French cooking took America by storm. Quotations about food, cooking, America, success, dieting.

Sandra Day O'Connor Quotes
Quotes by Sandra Day O'Connor - part of an extensive collection of quotations by notable women.

Quotes by Comedian and Actress Mae West
Her bawdy plays and movies were full of double entendres and attracted the attention of industry censors. Enjoy these selected Mae West quotations.

History of Feminism
A history of feminism. Women's History.

Feminists Turn Miss America 1968 Into a Protest
Feminists staged the Miss America Protest at the 1968 Miss America Pageant. Learn how the

Feminism and Pop Culture
Feminist looks at pop culture in the 60s and 70s -- how feminism was represented, and how feminism looked at how society was represented in movies and television.

1960s - 1970s Feminism: Second Wave Feminism
The 1960s and 1970s saw a resurgence of feminist activity, including the women's liberation movement and the more mainstream feminist groups.

Second Wave Feminism Year by Year
A year by year look at the events of the so-called Second Wave of feminism in the 1960s and 1970s.

Feminist Criticism of the Miss America Pageant
Read about why second wave feminists criticized the Miss America pageant.

What's Wrong With Beauty Pageants? Critique, 1968
Hundreds of activists protested the 1968 Miss America pageant and distributed pamphlets detailing their critique of beauty pageants.

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Anne of York, Sister of Two English Kings
Anne of York had connections to both sides in the Wars of the Roses, both the House of Lancaster and the House of York.

Inez Milholland Boissevain
Inez Milholland Boissevain was a flamboyant advocate for woman suffrage, and a radical activist for women's rights.

Barbara Walters Biography: Television Journalist
Barbara Walters, the first woman to anchor an American network evening news program, is profiled in this biography sketch.

Women Writers in the 19th Century
Women writers of nineteenth century history (including the Victorian era): women who have made an impact through their fiction or journalism or poetry.

Brontë Sisters: Charlotte, Emily, Anne
About the Bront sisters: Charlotte, Emily and Anne: their life stories and their writings.

British Women Writers
Highlighing key British (and English) women writers, including Mary Wollstonecraft, Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, and many more.

Philosophy & Philosophers
Notable women in philosophy, plus how philosophers have viewed women.

Women Writers: 18th Century
Women writers of the eighteenth century: women who have made a difference in history.

Mary Wollstonecraft: Facts and Basics
A summary profile of Mary Wollstonecraft, who was an early feminist and an Enlightenment figure, writing in the late 18th century on women's rights.

Mary Wollstonecraft - Rights in the Air
About Mary Wollstonecraft, early feminist: the philosophical and literary circles of the Enlightenment which helped shape Wollstonecraft's ideas.

Jane Addams: Settlement House Founder, Peace Advocate
Biography of Jane Addams, whose settlement house work at Hull-House was an important part of the history of the social work profession.

Ancient Queens, Empresses, Pharaohs and Other Female Rulers
Female rulers of the ancient and classical world: queens, pharaohs and empresses who ruled in their own name or who wielded power and influence as queen consorts. Find biographies, some bibliographies and pictures, and links to net resources for these women heads of state.

Women of the Roman Empire 31 BCE to 395 CE
Women of the Roman Empire 31 BCE to 395 CE. Information on their lives, plus biographies of some of the key women who wielded power during the Empire.

Agrippina the Elder
A profile of the daughter of Agrippa, granddaughter of Augustus, mother of Agrippina the Younger, married to Germanicus, opponent of Tiberius who banished her, and mother of Gaius (Caligula).

Nefertiti - Queen of Egypt
Nefertiti, chief wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV who became Akhenaten, was clearly more important in her time than most chief wives of Egyptian rulers were. Exactly what were her origins and role and what happened to her when she disappears from the public record remain mysteries about which many have speculated.

Zenobia - Warrior Queen of Palmyra
Zenobia was queen of Palmyra, in Syria. She conquered Egypt and challenged Rome, though was eventually defeated.

Black and White Women Abolitionists
Women abolitionists -- profiles of women abolitionists, including African American abolitionists and white women who worked for abolition.

Sarah Mapps Douglass, Philadelphia Abolitionist
Sarah Mapps Douglass, daughter of a successful African American family, devoted her life to teaching and to working to end slavery.

Sarah Parker Remond, African American Abolitionist
Sarah Parker Remond, part of a large family of free black anti-slavery activists, spent many years in England advocating for abolition.

African American Women in the 19th Century: 1864-1899
After the Civil War: Black women after slavery as they become involved in social reform movements, from racial justice to woman suffrage. Ex-slaves, freedmen, professionals, and more resources for further study. Biographies, articles, more.

Charlotte Forten Grimké: Abolitionist & Teacher
Charlotte Forten grew up in a free black family in Philadelphia and is known for her essays about teaching in the Sea Islands during the Civil War.

Mary Ann Shadd Cary - Abolitionist and Journalist
A profile of Mary Ann Shadd Cary, African American teacher, journalist, abolitionist and law school graduate who lived for some years in Canada.

Ellen Craft: Abolitionist and Educator
Ellen escaped enslavement in Georgia, the Deep South, with her husband, William, using an elaborate and risky ruse, then had to flee the US in 1850.

Maria Mitchell: Professional Woman Astronomer
Maria Mitchell: a mostly self-taught astronomer, she achieved fame and paying work in her field, inspiring and educating other women astronomers.

Caroline Herschel (Astronomer and Mathematician)
Caroline Herschel, pioneer woman astronomer, helped discover the planet Uranus, and also discovered nebulae and comets on her own.

Mary Church Terrell Index
Activist on behalf of African Americans and women, Mary Church Terrell was a charter member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and helped integrate the American Association of University Women (AAUW).

Mary Church Terrell - Women's & Civil Rights Activist
African American leader Mary Church Terrell worked for women's rights and racial justice, and worked to organize black women's organizations.

Julia Ward Howe - Mother's Day and Peace - Beyond the Battle Hymn of the Republic
Julia Ward Howe's accomplishments did not end with the writing of her famous poem, The Battle Hymn of the Republic. She called for a Mother's Day of Peace when she took up the cause of anti-militarism.

Julia Ward Howe: Reformer, Writer, Poet, Clubwoman
Julia Ward Howe biography: about the life of the author of the Battle Hymn of the Republic who was a, feminist, abolitionist, and peace advocate.

Simone de Beauvoir
Resources on Simone de Beauvoir, French woman writer whose works on feminism and existentialism are better known than her novels.

U.S. Women's Suffrage - Timeline of Events
A time line of events in the history of women's suffrage in America: key 19th and 20th century events leading to women winning the vote.

How Simone de Beauvoir Inspired Second Wave Feminism
Was the feminist Simone de Beauvoir indeed part of Women's Liberation? Read what she had to say as she took her place in the movement she inspired.

Simone de Beauvoir: Feminist Revolutionary
A profile of Simone de Beauvoir, feminist and author of The Second Sex, 1949 feminist classic.

African American History and Women Timeline 1920-1929
A chronology of events for African American women and other women involved in African American history. This section: 1920-1929.

Mary Wollstonecraft's Life and Work
Overview of the legacy, life, and work of England's early feminist, Mary Wollstonecraft, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

Women Saints - Doctors of the Church
What women have been named Doctors of the Church, and what does the term mean? When were they named to that honor?

Women Doctors of the Church: Térèse of Lisieux
Women's History.

Women Doctors of the Church: Catherine of Siena
Catherine of Siena was named a Doctor of the Church in 1970.

Women Doctors of the Church: Teresa of Avila
Teresa of Avila was named a Doctor of the Church in 1970.

Women Doctors of the Church: Hildegard of Bingen
Women's History.

Hildegard of Bingen: Abbess of the 12th Century
Hildegard of Bingen biography: a profile of Hildegard of Bingen, medieval visionary writer and composer of music.

Abbess: Her Role in Women's History
An abbess is not just a female abbott, though the roles are somewhat similar. Famous abbesses include Hildegard of Bingen, Heloise, Teresa of Avila.

Top Medieval Women of Power and Influence
Impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some were nearly forgotten after.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Theodora
Theodora: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Isabella of France
Isabella of France: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Empress Matilda
Empress Matilda: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Matilda of Tuscany
Matilda of Tuscany: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Next Steps
Learn more about women of power and women of medieval times.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Amalasuntha
Amalasuntha: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Catherine of Siena
Catherine of Siena: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Christine de Pizan
Christine de Pizan: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Eleanor of Aquitaine
Eleanor of Aquitaine: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Hildegard of Bingen
Hildegard of Bingen: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Hrotsvitha
Hrotsvitha: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Top Medieval Women of Power: Catherine of Valois
Catherine of Valois: one of the impressive women of medieval Europe: rulers, artists, writers, saints, they all were important in their day, though some have been nearly forgotten since.

Medieval Byzantine Empresses, Queens and Rulers - Byzantium Empresses
Medieval women who ruled or served as empresses, queens, regents or queen consorts in Byzantium.

Olympe de Gouges and the Rights of Woman
Olympe de Gouges, playwright and author of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen, wanted to extend citizenship to women, not just to men.

Theodora: Biography of 6th Century Byzantine Empress
About the Byzantine ruler Theodora, married to the Emperor Justinian. She was a powerful woman whose story is told primarily by Procopius.

Hypatia of Ancient Alexandria - Woman Philosopher
Hypatia, a mathematician, was an important pagan philosopher, a popular teacher in the Roman empire, who came under attack by the Christian Church.

Lorraine Hansberry - African-American Playwright
Lorraine Hansberry is best known for her play, A Raisin in the Sun, with universal, black, and feminist themes. Read more about her life and her work.

More About Women Rulers
After checking out these 12 rulers, you'll want to learn more about women who've ruled.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know
Every person who wants to be literate in history should know about these powerful women rulers -- queens, pharaohs, empresses.

Women's History
Women's History.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Elizabeth I
Powerful queens in history: Queen Elizabeth I was the long-ruling queen of England. What contributed to her success?

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Catherine II
Powerful historical queens: Catherine the Great of Russia modernized Russia and ruled with an iron hand.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Victoria
Powerful women rulers: her influence and popularity waxed and waned, but Queen Victoria put her mark on history.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Cixi
Powerful women rulers: The last Dowager Empress of China may have been the most powerful woman in all of history.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Hatshepsut
Powerful women rulers you should know: Hatshepsut ruled Egypt long before Cleopatra did.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Cleopatra
Powerful women rulers you should know: Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.

Powerful Women Rulers You Should Know: Empress Theodora
Powerful women rulers everyone should know: the Empress Theodora wielded enormous influence in Byzantium.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Amalasuntha
Powerful women rulers you should know: Amalasuntha is known as Queen of the Goths, and her murder likely led to the defeat of the Ostrogoths.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Empress Suiko
Important women rulers in history: first woman in recorded history to rule Japan was the Empress Suiko.

Powerful Women Rulers Everyone Should Know: Olga of Russia
Powerful women rulers in history: Olga of Russia was cruel and vengeful, and was the first Russian saint in Orthodox Christianity.

Powerful Women Rulers You Should Know: Eleanor of Aquitaine
Powerful women rulers in history: Eleanor of Aquitaine was married to two kings, and sometimes served as regent during each marriage.

Powerful Women Rulers You Should Know: Isabella I of Spain
Powerful women rulers in history: Isabella I of Castile and Aragon ruled with her husband Ferdinand. She's known for supporting Columbus; her rule included so much more.

Norma McCorvey - The Story of Jane Roe
Norma McCorvey was Roe in the famous Roe v. Wade case, noted for converting from a pro-choice to an anti-abortion point of view.

Calamity Jane Biography: "Wild West" Figure
A profile of Calamity Jane (Martha Jane Cannary Burke), notable figure from American western history. Which of her stories are credible, which aren't?

Women's Equality Day
August 26 of each year is designated in the United States as Women's Equality Day. Instituted by Rep. Bella Abzug and first established in 1971, the date commemorates the passage of the 19th Amendment, the Woman Suffrage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which gave U.S. women full voting rights in 1920.

Bella Abzug - Activist and Member of Congress
Bella Abzug profile: lawyer, feminist, activist, U.S. Congressman, and news commentator. She was known for her outspokenness -- and her hats.

Kate Chase Sprague - Ambitious Political Daughter
Kate Chase Sprague was the darling of Civil War Washington. Her extravagant marriage to a Senator was the event of 1863, then it turned scandalous.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Famous Women Scientists - List of More Than 90
Famous women scientists through the ages - how many do you know? Many linked to biographies for more about these women in science, medicine, math.

Anne Bradstreet's Poetry: Themes and Style
Anne Bradstreet's poetry dealt with typical Puritan religious themes, but also defended women's Reason and the immortality of writing itself.

Martha Carrier - Salem Witch Trials
Biography of Martha Carrier, executed as a witch in the Salem witch trials of 17th century colonial Massachusetts, the first accused from Andover.

Abigail Williams - Salem Witch Trials
Biography of Abigail Williams, accuser of witches in the Salem witch trials of 17th century colonial Massachusetts, among the first

1970s Feminism Timeline: Key Events in Women's History
This 1970s feminism timeline describes important women's rights events. Read about feminist history in this 1970s feminism timeline.

Margaret Fuller: Transcendentalist Writer and Editor
A profile of Margaret Fuller, a 19th century Transcendentalist and writer whose intellect and education were beyond her peers -- male or female.

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody: Transcendentalist Publisher
A biography of Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, Transcendentalist publisher, educator, and founder of U.S. kindergarten movement. One of the Peabody sisters.

Victoria Woodhull: Spiritualist, Stockbroker, Candidate
Biography of Victoria Woodhull, a spiritualist, stockbroker, newspaper editor and feminist known for running for president and her part in a scandal.

Racial Justice Supporters
White women who worked for racial justice and the rights of African Americans.

Marie Zakrzewska - Early Woman Medical Doctor
Dr. Marie Zakrzewska founded the New England Hospital for Women and Children, the second hospital staffed by women doctors in the United States.

Harriet Tubman in the Civil War: Nurse, Scout, Spy
Harriet Tubman served in the Union Army during the Civil War, organizing a scout and spy network, and even organizing, leading and going on raids.

Hillary Clinton Quotes: on Politics, Women, Life
Quotes by Hillary Rodham Clinton, presidential candidate, First Lady and United States Senator.

Women Who Have Won the Nobel Peace Prize
Women have won only a few of the Nobel Peace Prize awards, more in recent years than in the early years, though a woman's activism inspired the award.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Jody Williams
Jody Williams shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997 with the organization through which she worked, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Shirin Ebadi
First Muslim woman to win a Nobel Prize, Shirin Ebadi is a human rights advocate.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Wangari Maathai
Wangari Maathai is known for her Green Belt movement in Kenya, working for sustainable development, democracy and peace.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf survived an assassination attempt in 1980, and, after a failed campaign against Liberia's president Charles Taylor, won the presidency after Taylor was removed from office in a civil war.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Leymah Gbowee
Leymah Gbowee of Liberia worked for peace, organizing both Christian and Muslim women.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Tawakul Karman
Tawakul Karman, from Yemen, organized nonviolent protests to fight terrorism and fundamentalism.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Malala Yousafzai
Malala Yousafzai, a Pakistani girl, was and is an advocate for equal education for girls. She was shot in an assassination attempt by the Taliban in 2012.

Women Who Worked for Peace: More Women's History
More resources on women peace activists.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Baroness Bertha von Suttner
The Baroness Bertha von Suttner was a friend of Alfred Nobel and a peace organizer.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Jane Addams
Jane Addams, Hull House founder and peace activist, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize late in her life.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Emily Greene Balch
Emily Balch, a founder of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1946.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan
Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan joined forces, a Protestant and a Catholic, to work against violence in Northern Ireland.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her work

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Alva Myrdal
Alva Myrdal was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her work for disarmament.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi, who won an election for prime minister in Burma (Myanmar) but was prevented by the military from taking office, spent most of 1989 to 2010 under house arrest or in prison.

Women Nobel Peace Prize Winners: Rigoberta Menchú Tum
Rigoberta Mench won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 for her work for human rights for indigenous peoples.

Diana, Princess of Wales - Timeline of Events
A timeline of major events in the life of Diana, Princess of Wales, from her birth through her marriage to divorce then death.

September in Women's History
Calendar of September events, birthdays, and other commemorations of women's history.

Tudor Queens and More Women of Tudor England
Women of Tudor England: queens and other women who were central to the Tudor royal dynasty in England. Queen Elizabeth I (known as the Virgin Queen), Queen Mary (known as Bloody Mary), as well as the wives of Henry VIII: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Katherine Parr, more.

Harriet Tubman: Underground Railroad Conductor
Harriet Tubman was not satisfied with her own freedom, returning many times to free family members and others, taking them to the North or Canada.

Chicana Feminist Writer Gloria Anzaldua
Read about Gloria Anzaldua, self-described Chicana, Tejana, lesbian, feminist poet, writer and educator whose work won many awards.

Cleopatra Biography - Last Pharaoh of Egypt
Cleopatra VII was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. She allied herself with powerful Romans to try to maintain the power of the Ptolemy dynasty over Egypt.

Catherine of Aragon Index
Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England, was the first wife of King Henry VIII.

Bessie Coleman, African American Woman Pilot
Bessie Coleman - biography of the pioneer aviator, first black woman to fly a plane or earn a pilot's license.

Princess Diana Biography: Her Background and Life
Diana, Princess of Wales, had a fairy-tale marriage with a tragic end. She and Prince Charles seemed briefly happy, before the many scandals.

Catherine Howard - Henry VIII's Scandalous Fifth Wife
Biography of Catherine Howard, Queen consort and fifth wife of Henry VIII of England. She was beheaded for adultery and hiding her previous sexual history.

Women Candidates for President of the United States
What woman ran for US president first? And which women have run since? Find a list of the female candidates for US president here.

Betty Friedan Index
Betty Friedan, the author of The Feminine Mystique, was also a key founder of the National Organization for Women.

The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan
How Betty Friedan explored women's unhappiness in the bestseller book The Feminine Mystique, inspiring the Women's Liberation Movement.

Elizabeth Arden Biography: Cosmetics & Beauty Executive
Elizabeth Arden, cosmetics business executive, pioneered many advertising and marketing techniques. Learn more about her life and contributions here.

Abortion in the Ancient and Premodern World
The practice of menstrual regulation or abortion has ancient roots. What were some of the traditional methods, including herbal treatments?

Amelia Earhart Timeline Birth to Disappearance
Timeline: chronology of events in her life and career of Amelia Earhart, a pioneer woman pilot who disappeared in 1937 under mysterious circumstances.

We Now Demand Our Right to Vote: Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton introduced the idea of women voting at the 1848 Woman's Rights Convention, against the advice of some of her co-organizers.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton Quotes on Women, Equality & Life
Carefully selected quotes from Elizabeth Cady Stanton: on her work for women's rights plus advice about life, education, being a woman, aging, more.

What Are Women's Rights? Past and Present
What rights have been included in the umbrella of women's rights, at different periods of history? What are the basic categories and some examples?

Women's Rights
Find many articles and resources about the history of women's rights at WomensHistory.About.com.

Feminism Definition: Ideas, Beliefs, Movements
What is feminism? Feminism refers to a diverse variety of beliefs, ideas, movements, and agendas for action. What's the core that unites these paths?

Betsy Ross Biography: Famed for First American Flag
Betsy Ross made the first American flag -- or did she? Even if she didn't, her life and accomplishments illustrate a woman's life in colonial America.

Women Candidates for President of the United States
What woman ran for US president first? And which women have run since? Find a list of the female candidates for US president here.

Helen Thomas Quotes: "First Lady of the Press"
Quotes by Helen Thomas, called

American First Ladies: 1789 - Present
First Ladies have been a diverse lot - women married to American presidents, and a few other female relatives who've fulfilled the hostess role.

American First Ladies: 1789 - Present
First Ladies have been a diverse lot - women married to American presidents, and a few other female relatives who've fulfilled the hostess role.

American First Ladies: 1789 - Present
First Ladies have been a diverse lot - women married to American presidents, and a few other female relatives who've fulfilled the hostess role.

American First Ladies: 1789 - Present
First Ladies have been a diverse lot - women married to American presidents, and a few other female relatives who've fulfilled the hostess role.

American First Ladies: 1789 - Present
First Ladies have been a diverse lot - women married to American presidents, and a few other female relatives who've fulfilled the hostess role.

1848: Context of the First Woman's Rights Convention
In 1848, the first women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls. What else was going on in the world, that puts this event into perspective?

Seneca Falls Resolutions: 1848 Women's Rights
Resolutions adopted at the 1848 women's rights convention included the idea that women and men were equal in capabilities and responsibilities.

Lucretia Mott: Abolitionist and Women's Rights Activist
A profile of Lucretia Mott, Quaker antislavery and women's rights advocate. She was a key figure in the early feminist movement.

Women of Transcendentalism: Participants and Influences
Without these women, the Transcendentalist movement would have been quite different. Here are some of the female voices and influences.

Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention - 1848
Seneca Falls 1848 saw the first meeting of women and a few men to call for rights for women,the beginning of the first wave of feminism.

Women’s March on Versailles: French Revolution
The Women's March on Versailles in October 1789 was a turning point in the French Revolution, leading to the name

Powerful Queens of the 12th Century
Three powerful women ruled in the 12th century, each claiming her own right to power, and each plagued by civil unrest.

Elizabeth Woodville: Edward IV's Controversial Queen
Elizabeth Woodville, Queen of England, wielded considerable influence and power. But some of the stories told about her may be pure propaganda.

Cecily Neville, Duchess of York: Mother of Kings
Read more about Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, who played a key role in the politics of the British War of the Roses.

Margaret Beaufort Facts and Timeline
Basics about Margaret Beaufort, mother and supporter of Henry VII of England, the first Tudor king. Includes a chronology of key events in her life.

Margaret Beaufort: The Making of the Tudor Dynasty
Margaret Beaufort, mother of Tudor King Henry VII of England, was also her son's supporter and advisor both before and after he became king.

Margaret Beaufort, King's Mother
As King's Mother, Margaret Beaufort advised and consulted, and had a key role in her son's household. She became more involved in religious activity.

Mary I of England: Queen in Her Own Right
The story of Queen Mary I of England, known as Bloody Mary, who was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, his first wife.

Marilyn Monroe: Famous and Unfamiliar Quotes
Find the best Marilyn Monroe quotes, on acting, her life, marriage, men, and more. You'll find familiar and unfamiliar quotes here, and learn more about this tragic movie star through her words.

Marilyn Monroe Biographies: Recommended Reading
A list of recommended biographies of Marilyn Monroe, from Gloria Steinem's feminist biography to one by a man who claimed to have married Monroe.

Women Writers: 20th Century
Women writers of the twentieth century: women who have made an impact through their fiction or journalism or poetry.

Lucretia Mott Index
Find a biography, pictures and other resources on Lucretia Mott, a key figure in founding the women's suffrage and women's rights movement in the United States.

Mary Ritter Beard Quotes: Historian
Quotes by Mary Ritter Beard, writer and historian. She was part of the women's suffrage and labor movements, and also wrote about women's history.

Empress Matilda (Maud): Rightful Ruler of England?
A profile of Matilda of England, who was named by her father as queen of England and then had to fight for her crown.

Medieval Women of History: 500 CE - 1600 CE
A list of biographies of medieval women: rulers, artists, writers, saints, and more. Some came to power through men in their lives, some on their own.

Glossary - Women's History
This glossary includes words and phrases encountered in women's history that are sometimes confusing, or terms that have passed out of usage or have changed in usage. I've also added some amusing definitions from historical documents.

Coco Chanel: Fashion Designer and Fashion Executive
Coco Chanel brought us the little black dress, the Chanel suit and jacket, bell bottoms and Chanel No. 5 perfume. What brought her to fame and fortune?

Queen Victoria's Children and Grandchildren
A list of the children and grandchildren of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, showing their intermarriages with other royal houses of Europe.

Cleopatra
Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt, history's infamous

Cleopatra Biographies
Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt, history's infamous

Cleopatra - Historical and Archeological Context
Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt, history's infamous

Cleopatra - Images in Art, Literature and Film
Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt, history's infamous

Was Cleopatra Black? - Weighing the Evidence Pro & Con
Was Cleopatra (Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt) a black African queen? How would we know? Here's a summary of the evidence for and against.

Matilda of Flanders
Matilda of Flanders biography - a profile of Matilda of Flanders, queen of England, married to William the Conqueror.

Catherine of Valois Biography
A biographical profile of Catherine of Valois, a daughter, wife, mother, and grandmother of kings. One son was Henry VI and another Henry VII.

Isabella of France: Queen Consort of Edward II
About Isabella of France, daughter of Jeanne of Navarre, queen consort of Edward II, mother of Edward III and conspirator with Roger Mortimer.

Elizabeth Blackwell Quotes: First Woman Physician
Quotes by Elizabeth Blackwell - part of an extensive collection of quotations by notable women.

Elizabeth Blackwell: First Woman Physician
Elizabeth Blackwell is known as the first woman physician in America, the first woman to graduate from medical school, working against opposition.

Mary Sibley - Salem Witch Trials Figure
Who was the real Mary Sibley of Salem? Was she an innocent neighbor trying to help out with that witch's cake, or a diabolical figure?

Babe Didrikson Zaharias Quotes: Greatest Woman Athlete
Quotes by Babe Didrikson Zaharias - part of an extensive collection of quotations by notable women.

Women in Medieval History
Medieval and Renaissance Women: women's lives, women's roles, gender issues and notable women.

Women and the Crusades
Learn about women's many roles during the European crusades to conquer lands in the Middle East.

100 Most Important Women in World History
Which women in history had the biggest impact on the world? One suggested list as you think about who you'd include in such a list.

Alice Walker Quotes
Quotes by Alice Walker - part of an extensive collection of quotations by notable women.

Rosa Parks Profile - Civil Rights Activist and Icon
A biography of Rosa Parks, civil rights hero remembered for igniting the Montgomery bus boycott when she refused to give up her seat on a segregated bus.

Mary Somerville, Mathematician and Scientist
Biography and bibliography of Mary Somerville, 19th century woman mathematician and scientist, elected in 1835 to the Royal Astronomical Society.

Women in Space - Female Astronauts and Cosmonauts
Astronauts and cosmonauts, and a few who would have been if the world had been different for women.

Diana, Princess of Wales
Diana, Princess of Wales (1961-1997) was a tragic figure of the 20th century British royal family. She lived her adult life in the public eye, and died pursued by photographers. She was divorced from Prince Charles, mother of Princes William and Henry, and she was also an active charity-worker.

Interesting Facts About Diana, Princess of Wales
A collection of trivia facts about Diana, Princess of Wales: her life, her marriage, her divorce, her charity work, Mother Teresa and more.

Audre Lorde Quotes - Black Feminist Lesbian Activist
Audre Lorde, a poet and feminist theorist, had a lot to say about race, gender and sexuality, and was a critic of one-dimensional feminism.

Women in Space - Female Astronauts and Cosmonauts
A chronology of women in space - timeline of famous firsts for women astronauts, cosmonauts, space shuttle pilots and commanders, and more.

Women's Property Laws - Married Women and Property
In countries with law founded on English common law -- and some others, as well -- traditionally, women lost all rights to own property or exercise contract rights after marriage. Before marriage, such rights usually belonged not to the woman, but to her father. Here are some laws that gave women control over property, income, and contracts.

Women's Property Rights
Property rights of married women, under English common law and especially in America.

Marriage History - 19th Century
Marriage, courtship and divorce practices in the nineteenth century, shedding light on the roles and status of women, wives and widows.

New York Passes a Married Women's Property Act, 1848
Explanation and text of the groundbreaking 1848 law granting women legal right to keep and acquire property after marriage.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Women's Suffrage Leader
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a key leader in the 19th century women's rights movement, working with Susan B. Anthony while raising a large family.

Civil War Nurse and Spy S. Emma E. Edmonds
Portrait of Sarah Emma Edmonds aka Frank Thompson, soldier and nurse in the Civil War and author of a memoir on her explots.

Women Spies of the Civil War
Women played many roles in the Civil War. One of them: spying for the Union or the Confederacy. Assumptions about women's docility made it easier for some women to dare to spy and get away with it -- at least for a while.

A Nurse's View of Battle: Bull Run, First Manassas
Sarah Emma Edmonds tells her version of the story of the Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas), July 21, 1861.

Sarah Emma Edmonds - Civil War Soldier Who Fought as a Man
Sarah Emma Edmonds biography - learn more about the woman who served as a Civil War soldier as Frank Thompson, and wrote about her war experiences.

Woman Suffrage - 1900-1920
Women's Suffrage: women struggle for the right to vote. The later phases of the women's suffrage campaign in Britain and the United States, from 1900-1920, ending with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.

The Essential Oneness of Ethical Ideas
Address to the 1893 Parliament of the World's Religions, held with the Columbian Exposition, Ida Hultin, a Unitarian, spoke on universal ethics.

Sympathy Led to More Support
From 1913 to 1917, the women's suffrage movement evolved and then split, as one wing became more radical, focused on demonstrations, and one remained more focused on lobbying. From the 1913 March on Washington to the 1917 White House demonstrations, women's suffrage was in the public eye as it had not been before.