Women's History Sitemap - Page 10 2016-09-26

Betsy Ross Advertising Image
An advertising image using Betsy Ross. Page 7.

Betsy Ross Gravesite Image
Betsy Ross gravesite Image, one of many illustrations and other depictions of Betsy Ross, supposedly the maker of the first United States flag. Page 6.

Betsy Ross House - Philadelphia
Image of the house in Philadelphia identified as the Betsy Ross House. Page 2.

Betsy Ross Sewing a Flag
Illustrations and other depictions of Betsy Ross, supposedly the maker of the first United States flag. Page 3.

Betsy Ross Sewing
Betsy Ross is depicted in this detail from a larger image, sewing a flag with 5-pointed stars. Page 4.

Betsy Ross and the First Flag: Painting
Betsy Ross is here depicted with helpers making the first flag. Accurate? Learn more. Page 5.

Betsy Ross Picture Gallery
Illustrations and other depictions of Betsy Ross, supposedly the maker of the first United States flag.

Betsy Ross Photo - Living History Reenactment
Living history reenactment of Betsy Ross making of first American flag, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Pocahontas Image - Romantic 19th Century Image of Pocahontas
An image of Pocahontas from the late 19th century, showing the romantic image in the popular imagination. Page 8.

Image of Pocahontas - from an 1867 tobacco label.
An image of Pocahontas from an 1867 tobacco label -- perhaps especially appropriate since her husband and son were both tobacco farmers. Page 7.

Pocahontas - Rebecca Rolfe - 1616
In this painting, Pocahontas or Matoaka is wearing English dress.

Pocahontas Saves Captain John Smith
Image depicting the story told by Captain John Smith of being saved by Pocahontas. Page 4.

Captain Smith Saved by Pocahontas - 1894 Image
A 19th century depiction of the Smith/Pocahontas legend. Page 5.

Pocahontas Engraving
Image of Pocahontas, created during her lifetime. Page 2.

Image of Pocahontas Saving Captain John Smith
Image of Pocahontas saving Captain John Smith, representing the common mythology of this famous rescue. Page 3.

Image of Pocahontas at the Court of King James.
An artist's conception of the presentation at the Court of King James I of the famous American, Pocahontas. Page 6.

Pocahontas Image Gallery
A picture gallery of images of Pocahontas, instrumental in the success of Tidewater area colonial settlements

Famous and Powerful Women of the Decade - 2000-2009
Recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered.

Benazir Bhutto - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 2.

Angela Merkel - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Angela Merkel - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 14.

Famous and Powerful Women of the Decade - 2000-2009
Recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered.

Aung San Suu Kyi - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
London protestor with mask of Aung San Suu Kyi - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 23.

Famous and Powerful Women of the Decade - 2000-2009
Recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered.

Sonia Gandhi - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Sonia Gandhi - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 8.

Sarah Palin - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Sarah Palin - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 18.

Sandra Day O'Connor - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Sandra Day O'Connor - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 16.

Ruth Gader Ginsburg - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Ruth Bader Ginsburg - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 10.

Rachel Maddow - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Rachel Maddow - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 13.

Oprah Winfrey - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Oprah Winfrey - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 24.

Nancy Pelosi - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Nancy Pelosi - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 19.

Michelle Obama - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Michelle Obama - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 17.

President Michelle Bachelet - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Chile's first female president, Michelle Bachelet - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered.

Melinda Gates - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Melinda Gates - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 9.

Katie Couric - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Katie Couric - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 4.

PepsiCo Chair and CEO Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
PepsiCo Chair and CEO Indra Krishnamurthy Nooyi - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 15.

Hillary Clinton - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Hillary Clinton - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 3.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 12.

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf - Powerful Women of 2000-2009
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 21.

Drew Gilpin Faust - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Drew Gilpin Faust - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 5.

Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner - Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 6.

Condoleezza Rice - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Condoleezza Rice - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 20.

Carly Fiorina - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Carly Fiorina - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 7.

Wu Yi - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Wu Yi - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 25.

Wangari Maathai - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Wangari Maathai - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 11.

Sonia Sotomayor - Famous and Powerful Women of the 2000-2009 Decade
Sonia Sotomayor - recognizing powerful women of the decade, 2000-2009, whose role in history is likely to be remembered. Page 22.

Pioneer Life in 19th Century America - Wisconsin Gravestones - Olaus Larson
Pictures from a Wisconsin graveyard tell a story about 19th century America. Page 3.

Pioneer Life in 19th Century America - Wisconsin Gravestones - Diphtheria Epidemic
Pictures from a Wisconsin graveyard tell a story about 19th century America. Page 4.

Pioneer Life in 19th Century America - Wisconsin Gravestones for Albert, Anna M. And Oscar Larson
Pictures from a Wisconsin graveyard tell a story about 19th century America. Page 2.

Pioneer Life in 19th Century America - Wisconsin Gravestones
Pictures from a Wisconsin graveyard tell a story about 19th century America.

Pioneer Life in the 19th Century - Wisconsin Graveyard Pictures
Pictures from a graveyard tell stories about 19th century pioneer life in America.

Elisabetta Sirani Self-Portrait in Chalk
Self-portrait of Renaissance painter Elisabetta Sirani of Bologna. Page 2.

Elisabetta Sirani - Timoclea
In this oil painting by Elisabetta Sirani, Timoclea is shown throwing her rapist, the king of the Traci, into a well. Page 4.

Elisabetta Sirani - Porcia Catonis - Oil Painting
An oil painting of Porcia Wounding Her Thigh by Renaissance artists Elisabetta Sirani. Page 5.

Elisabetta Sirani - Portrait of Beatrice Cenci
Portrait of Beatrice Cenci, National Gallery of Antique Art, Rome, by Elisabetta Sirani. Page 8.

Elisabetta Sirani - Cleopatra
Oil of painting representing Cleopatra, by Elisabetta Sirani. Page 7.

Elisabetta Sirani - Madonna and Child with St. John
Madonna and Child with St. John, an oil painting by 17th century painter Elisabetta Sirani. Page 6.

Elisabetta Sirani - Self-Portrait
A self-portrait by Elisabetta Sirani, Renaissance woman painter. Page 3.

Eleonora Gonzaga Portray - Titian 1538 - Renaissance Art Portrait
A portrait of Eleonora Gonzaga, daughter of Isabella d'Este, married to the Duke of Urbino, Francesco della Rovere. Page 6.

Isabella d'Este - The Court by Lorenzo Costa - Sometimes Called the Court of Isabella
This painting by Lorenzo Costa, part of a collection of Isabella d'Este, Renaissance arts patron, may have depicted Isabella. Page 5.

Portrait of Isabella d'Este by Giulio Romano
Isabella d'Este portrait, by painter Giulio Romano. Page 4.

Isabella d'Este by Rubens - Portrait of Isabella d'Este by Artist Peter Paul Rubens
A portrait of Isabella d'Este by Rubens. Page 3.

Isabella d'Este Portrait - Titian, 1534-1536
A portrait of Isabelle d'Este, painted by Titian about 1534-1536, depicting a 25-year-old Isabella, an important figure in Renaissance art history.

Isabella d'Este Portrait - Drawing by Leonardo da Vinci
A portrait of Isabella d'Este, a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, part of the circle of artist that Isabella d'Este supported. Page 2.

Isabella d'Este Picture Gallery
A picture gallery of portraits and paintings of Isabella d'Este, Renaissance noblewoman and art collector.

Women and the French Revolution
Women played many different roles in the French Revolution. What is certain: women did play active roles.

Women in the French Revolution: Women’s March on Versailles
Women's History.

Women in the French Revolution: Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette was, of course, at the center of the French Revolution. The common people suspected, and they were right, that she opposed the reforms that the people wanted.

Women in the French Revolution: Elizabeth Vigee LeBrun
Elizabeth Vigee LeBrun, a painter, tried to help the image of the royal family as the French Revolution neared, by portraying the queen as having more of a middle class life style.

Women in the French Revolution: Madame de Stael
Madame de Stael was a supporter of the French Revolution who then had to flee when the September Massacres made clear that the radicals were in charge.

Women in the French Revolution: Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday thought she'd stem the tide of the more radical French Revolution and its bloodbath by ... killing one of the radical leaders literally in his bath.

Women in the French Revolution: Olympe de Gouges
Olympe de Gouges thought that women were equally entitled to citizenship in the new Republic after the French Revolution. The radicals didn't share her opinion.

Women in the French Revolution: Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft's famous Vindication of the Rights of Woman is rooted in the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Women in the French Revolution: Sophie Germain
Not everyone in France was caught up in the dramatic events. This famous woman mathematician grew up in Revolutionary France; her isolation because of the violence around her may have helped her focus on her studies.

Feminism and Trans Women: 21st Century Battle?
Are trans women women? This is an argument that informs 21st century feminism, with some feminists advocating for the rights of trans women, and others arguing that trans women are not women and should be excluded from feminism and women's spaces.

Boston Marriage
Information on the historical phenomenon of women who lived in marriage-like relationships and were described as having Boston marriages.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton - Book Lists on Women's History
Print resources for reading more about Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

Was Einstein's First Wife His Silent Collaborator?
Women in science have had to struggle against obstacles that were less for men. Sometimes, men got credit for work of women. Did this happen with Albert Einstein's first wife?

Nushu, a Woman-Only Language of China
A woman-only language -- or more accurately, a script -- in China came to public attention only in the last part of the 20th century. Its origins and much of its history is still obscure.

Harriet Tubman Day: March 10
How did March 10 become Harriet Tubman Day? It's the anniversary of her death, and the Congress and President declared March 10 to be Harriet Tubman Day in 1990.

New Salem Mythology: A Television Series Goes Very Wrong
Salem the TV Series: it's about as far from historically-based as you can without making up place names and all the character names. Read about the real history here.

Alice Perrers: Mistress of Edward III
Alice Perrers is known to history as the mistress of Edward III in his later life, charged by Parliament with undue influence over courts and extravagent expenditures of public money.

Geoffrey Chaucer: Early Feminist?
Was Geoffrey Chaucer an early feminist? Learn about some of his ties to strong and important women, and about how he wove women's experience into his work, The Canterbury Tales.

Murasaki Shikibu: Women Poets in History
Murasaki Shikibu: a poet of medieval Japan who wrote the first novel known in the world.

Women Poets of History: How Many Do You Know?
Find some of the important and often-forgotten women poets of history. Some made significant contributions to the history of poetry, others are interested for their lives and writing.

Elizabeth Barrett Browning: Women Poets of History
Elizabeth Barret Browning: Victorian poet who was also known for her ill health and for defying her family to marry Robert Browning.

The Brontë Sisters: Women Poets of History
The Brontë first came to public attention through poetry, and then launched their careers (though short) as novelists.

Emily Dickinson (1830 - 1886)
Emily Dickinson: her poems influenced many who came after her, though she published almost nothing during her own life.

Amy Lowell: Women Poets of History
Amy Lowell, a woman poet of the early 20th century whose life and work have been the subject of late 20th century feminist and gender studies scrutiny.

Sappho: Women Poets in History
Sappho: one of the most significant women poets of ancient history.

Ono no Komachi: Women Poets of History
Ono no Komachi: a 9th century poet and subject of a 14th century play.

Hrosvitha of Gandersheim: Women Poets of History
Hrosvitha of Gandersheim, writing in the 10th century, is the first known woman playwright and the first known European woman poet after Sappho.

Marie de France: Women Poets in History
Marie de France is known for her poetry in the tradition of courtly love.

Vittoria Colonna
Vittoria Colonna was a 16th century Roman Renaissance poet who specialized in religious poetry.

Mary Sidney Herbert: Woman Poets of History
Mary Sidney Herbert was a Tudor era poet and part of the court of Queen Elizabeth. She is as well known for her for her patronage of other poets as for her own work.

Phillis Wheatley: Woman Poet of History
Phillis Wheatley, a slave brought from Africa, learned to read and write, and became a published poet.

Women Olympic Skaters - Who Were Some of the Best?
A history of women in Olympic figure skating, including information on some of the best known women skaters of all time.

Heterodoxy Club: A 1910s-1930s Group for Unorthodox Feminists
The Heterodoxy Club was a group where unorthodox women could challenge orthodoxy, whether of the culture, politics, philosophy, or any other topic. A very mixed group that valued differences, the members were each involved in creative work as well as favoring women's rights.

Marie Taglioni: Famous 19th Century Ballerina
Marie Taglioni, an Italian ballerina, was known for her ethereal and graceful style.

Lola Montez
Lola Montez, Irish-born, adopted the name to accompany her Spanish dancing which launched her performing career. She's also known for her many loves, which included a famous composer, a novelist and a king.

Calamity Jane Pictures
Pictures of Calamity Jane and related images.

Women in Psychology and Psychiatry
Women psychologists, psychiatrists and psychotherapists who have made important contributions to the field of psychology.

Rita Levi-Montalcini: Nobel Prize Winning Neuroembryologist
Rita Levi-Montalcini won over her father who was opposed to her medical education, and discovered nerve growth hormone, changing how some diseases and birth defects are diagnosed and treated.

Mount Holyoke College - Mt. Holyoke
What is the history of Mount Holyoke College? Who are some of the famous graduates? Find the facts here.

Smith College
What is the history of Smith College? Who are some of the famous graduates? Find the facts here.

Seven Sisters Colleges History
The Seven Sisters, women's colleges in the Northeast of the United States, were founded in the 19th century to bring equal higher education to women. Do you know which ones they are? Read illustrated profiles of these colleges including information on some of their best-known students.

Vassar College
What is the history of Vassar College College? Who are some of the famous graduates? Find the facts here.

Wellesley College
What is the history of Wellesley College? Who are some of the famous graduates? Find the facts here.

Radcliffe College
What is the history of Radcliffe College? Who are some of the famous graduates? Find the facts here.

Barnard College
What is the history of Barnard College? Who are some of the famous graduates? Find the facts here.

Bryn Mawr College
What is the history of Bryn Mawr College? Who are some of the famous graduates? Find the facts here.

Audre Lorde, Black Lesbian Feminist Poet, Essayist and Educator
Audre Lorde, born of West Indian parents, wrote from her black lesbian feminist perspective. Her poetry is powerful and often angry -- sometimes loving -- and her books about her struggles with cancer have helped other women understand that journey.

Nannie Helen Burroughs: Advocate for Black Women
Nannie Helen Burroughs, founder of the largest black women's organization of her time and also of a black women's school in Washington, DC, was the daughter of a former slave.

Planned Parenthood - Profile
A profile of the organization Planned Parenthood, a major provider of women's reproductive health services in America.

African American History and Women Timeline 1960-1969
A chronology of events and birthdates for African American women and other women involved in African American history. This section of the timeline covers the years 1960-1969.

African American History & Women Timeline 1930-1939
A chronology of events and birthdates for African American women and other women involved in African American history. This section of the timeline covers the years 1930-1939.

African American Women Writers: Lucy Parsons
Radical organizer and writer Lucy Parsons may have been born a slave.

More Black Women's History
After exploring African American women writers through history, here's a list of other topics that might also interest you.

African American Women Writers: Old Elizabeth
Old Elizabeth, an emancipated slave and preacher, wrote of her own life.

African American Women on Race - 1902
Essays by 11 African American women on race-related topics, published in 1902.

Ntozake Shange
Women's History.

bell hooks
Teacher and writer bell hooks has written on issues of race, gender, class and sexual oppression.

Alice Walker
Alice Walker's The Color Purple is now considered part of America's diverse literary canon. Walker has not only been a writer but also an activist.

African American Women Writers: Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison, the first African American woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, is known for both her writing and her teaching.

African American Women Writers: Angela Davis
Angela Davis, most known for her radical politics, also has written extensively about women, race and politics.

African American Women Writers: Gwendolyn Brooks
Gwendolyn Brooks, poet laureate of Illinois, in 1950 became the first African American to win the Pulitzer Prize.

African American Women Writers: Lorraine Hansberry
Lorraine Hansberry, playwright, is known for her play about a black family, A Raisin in the Sun.

African American Women Writers: Daisy Lee Bates
Women's History.

African American Women Writers: Regina Anderson
Regina Anderson, playwright, helped found the Harlem Experimental Theatre with W.E.B. Du Bois.

African American Women Writers: Marita Bonner
Marita Bonner: Harlem Renaissance figure who stopped publishing her writing in 1941, becoming a teacher.

African American Women Writers: Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston's work is today recognized as part of the diverse American literary canon, in no small part due to the work of Alice Walker in bringing her back to public attention.

African American Women Writers: Shirley Graham Du Bois
Shirley Graham Du Bois was working as a writer when she met W.E.B. Du Bois, whom she married.

African American Women Writers: Jessie Redmon Fauset
Jessie Redmond Fauset, literary editor of the Crisis, was the first African American woman elected to Phi Beta Kappa.

African American Women Writers: Angelina Weld Grimké
Angelina Weld Grimke, part of the biracial Grimke family, was an African American writer and teacher known for her contributions to the Harlem Renaissance.

African American Women Writers: Alice Dunbar-Nelson
Alice Dunbar-Nelson was a Harlem Renaissance figure, married to another key Harlem Renaissance writer, Paul Dunbar. They divorced, and she became a teacher and school administrator.

African American Women Writers: Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Reporter Ida B. Wells (later Wells-Barnett) became known for her writing that exposed the extent of lynching.

Audre Lorde
Women's History.

African American Women Writers: Charlotte Forten Grimké
Charlotte Forten wrote of her experiences teaching newly freed slaves in the Sea Islands during the Civil War. She later married Francis J. Grimké, a minister, son of a slave woman and Henry Grimké, brother of the famous Grimké sisters.

African American Women Writers: Frances Ellen Watkins Harper
Frances E. W. Harper was a writer and journalist who was also an anti-slavery and pro-women's rights advocate.

African American Women Writers: Georgia Douglas Johnson
Georgia Douglas Johnson, a Harlem Renaissance figure, hosted salons for black writers and artists in Washington, DC. We've lost most of her unpublished writings.

African American Women Writers: Mary Church Terrell
Women's History.

African American Women Writers: Mary Ann Shadd Cary
Mary Ann Shadd Cary used her writing skills to advocate for black Americans to flee to Canada after the Fugitive Slave Act.

African American Women Writers: Harriet Jacobs
Harriet Jacobs was an escaped slave whose autobiography helped the abolitionist movement.

African American Women Writers: Maria Stewart
Maria Stewart, a northern black woman, became an early spokesperson on abolition.

African American Women Writers: Phillis Wheatley
Phillis Wheatley published a volume of her poems in 1773 in Massachusetts.

African American Women Writers: Novelists, Poets, Journalists, More
African American women have written their own life experiences as biographers; some have been novelists, poets, journalists, playwrights, essayists, social commentators and feminist theorists. Meet more than 20 such women here.

Intersectionality - Definition and Explanation
A women's history definition of intersectionality -- what does the term mean? How is it related to oppression and privilege?

Queens Consort of England: Houses of Lancaster and York
Lancaster and York Queens of England by marriage: consorts of Lancaster and York kings of England.

Lancaster and York Queens: Mary de Bohun
Mary de Bohun, married to the future Henry IV and mother to the future Henry V, died before her husband became king.

Lancaster and York Queens: Joan of Navarre
Second wife of Henry IV, Joan of Navarre had no children in that marriage. She did have nine in her second marriage.

Lancaster and York Queens: Catherine of Valois
Catherine of Valois was not just queen to Henry V; her second marriage to Owen Tudor made her a grandmother of the first Tudor king.

Lancaster and York Queens: Margaret of Anjou
Margaret of Anjou tried to protect her husband's and son's interests, even when husband Henry VI had some spells of mental breakdown.

Lancaster and York Queens: Elizabeth Woodville
Queen of the first York king, Edward IV, Elizabeth Woodville's marriage was declared invalid by her husband's successor, the last York king.

Lancaster and York Queens: Anne Neville
Anne Neville, whose mother was a very wealthy countess, was one of two daughters to marry York brothers. Anne was briefly queen when her husband, Richard III, displaced his nephew Edward after the death of Edward IV.

Find More British Queens
After you've explored the list of Lancaster and York queens, some more of these British and other women rulers may be of interest.

Islamic Women's Dress in History
Women's dress in Islamic culture is based on a principle of female modesty. Customs of the time, place, and social class of the woman influence what she might wear. Some options include hijab -- or modest, loose clothing and a scarf over the head and under the chin -- and burqa or burka, a more complete covering of the head, face and body.

Virginia Durr: White Southerner for Civil Rights
Virginia Durr biography: a prominent white ally of the civil rights movement, she came from a white privileged background and changed her thinking when she attended Wellesley College and later was part of the New Deal.

Mary Sidney Herbert, Countess of Pembroke
Elizabethan poet Mary Sidney Herbert was educated in the same subjects as her brother, Philip Sidney, also a poet. She served in the court of Queen Elizabeth I as had her mother.

Emily Newell Blair, Political Feminist in the 1920s-1940s
Emily Newell Blair's work in the 1920s through 1944 gives the lie to the idea that feminism died out between the so-called first and second waves of feminism.

Molly Dewson, Woman of the New Deal
Mollly Dewson is best known for her work within the Democratic Party between World War I and World War II, promoting roles for women. She helped get Frances Perkins appointed as the first woman cabinet official.

Amy Lowell - Poetry
Poetry by women: index for Amy Lowell - part of a larger collection of poetry written by women, much of it before the twentieth century. Gives insight into the lives and expectations of women in history.

Citing Online Resources - Cite a Page on This Site
Resources for figuring out how to cite a web page -- including any on this site, for historians, writers, students and teachers. Includes information on how to cite sources, in Turabian, ALA, Chicago and other styles.

Emmy Noether: Pioneer Work in Ring Theory, Algebra
Emmy Noether's foundational work in abstract algebra is important to twentieth century physics.

Women Characters in The White Queen (Wars of the Roses)
Elizabeth Woodville and the other women of the series The White Queen, as they really appeared in the Wars of the Roses.

Artemisia Gentileschi - Self Portrait Playing the Lute
Self Portrait Playing the Lute, by Artemisia Gentileschi, 1615 - 1617. Page 3.

Judith Leyster - Self Portrait at the Easel
Self Portrait at the Easel by Judith Leyster, 1630. Page 4.

Sofonisba Anguissola - Self Portrait - 1556
Self Portrait by Sofonisba Anguissola, painted 1556.

Sofonisba Anguissola - Self Portrait
Self Portrait by Sofonisba Anguissola. Page 2.

Women's History Month - How It Began
The story of how Women's History Month came to be established in March in the United States. When and where did it begin? How has it been honored?

Voices of 1920 Heard Today
Voices of women who worked for woman suffrage: woman suffrage timeline jeannette rankin oral history project seneca falls convention international woman

Tudor Women Timeline
Place the Tudor women into context with this timeline showing major events in their lives.

Bride Gift - Definition of the Custom in Women's History
What is the meaning of bride gift (or bride price or morning gift) in law and custom? To whom is it paid, and how common was the custom?

Divorce and Annulment In Women's Legal History
The difference between divorce and annulment, in legal history, and the evolution of religious institutional involvement in both divorce and annulment.

Famous Fashion and Beauty Business Executives
Fashion and beauty are fields where women have been able to succeed, even when other businesses were largely closed to women as business executives. Here are a few such women you might know by name.

Elizabeth Arden
Elizabeth Arden: Profile of one of the key women fashion and beauty business executives.

Coco Chanel
Coco Chanel: Profile of one of the key women fashion and beauty business executives.

Helena Rubinstein
Helena Rubinstein: Profile of one of the key women fashion and beauty business executives.

Diane von Furstenberg
Diane von Furstenberg: Profile of one of the key women fashion and beauty business executives.

Madam C. J. Walker
Madam C. J. Walker: Profile of one of the key women fashion and beauty business executives.

More Resources on Women's History: Beauty, Fashion, More
More resources on women in the beauty and fashion industries.

Elizabeth How - Salem Witch Trials
Accused of afflicting a young neighbor, afflicting many of the key accusers in the Salem witch trials, and killing or harming neighbors' animals in her anger, Elizabeth How was one of those executed in the Salem witch trials.

Black History / Women's History Themes
Themes for Black History month or any black history unit: if you're planning to honor black history at your school, library, workplace, club or anywhere else, here are some themes that might inspire you to focus on for this year's celebration.

Paula Gunn Allen Quote on Community
A quote on how we exist in community, rather than alone.

Louisa May Alcott Quote on Aspirations
Quote about having high aspirations.

Toni Morrison Quote
A quote by Virginia Woolf on why we may not know of many women writers.

Virginia Woolf Quote on Anonymous Women
A quote by Virginia Woolf on why we may not know of many women writers.

Maya Angelou Quote on Dreamers
Quote about dreaming and hope by Maya Angelou.

Suffrage Cartoon: Inauguration of the Future, 1897
An 1897 political cartoon mocks the suffrage idea by showing a vision of an inauguration of the future.

Mocking Women Physicians
Mocking

Suffrage Cartoon: A Female Suffrage Fancy
Women's suffrage cartoon, from Puck Magazine about 1885.

Suffrage Cartoons - Female Chamber of Horrors
A Puck cartoon mocking women in leadership positions and women working for women's rights.

My Wife Won't Let Me Vote: Anti-Suffrage Post Card
Anti-suffrage postcard published in New York in 1915. Part of the genre of reversed roles -- women will take on what men do and then men will have to take on women's traditional roles.

Anti-Suffrage Cartoon: Angel in the House
Punch magazine women's suffrage cartoon from 1884,

"A Brave Lady": Suffrage Cartoon, 1872
A British cartoon from 1872 mocks women's supposed thoughtlessness in voting.

Black History and Women
Celebrate the women of black history and their contributions and perspectives. Find biographies, timelines, descriptions of major events and more.

Elizabeth Proctor - Salem Witch Trials, 1692
Elizabeth Proctor was accused and convicted of witchcraft in the 1692 Salem witch craze. Her husband was also accused and convicted, and was executed. Elizabeth Proctor escaped execution because she was pregnant at the time. She fought for years to get her rights and some recompense.

Salem Witch Trials Aftermath 1711 - Reversing the Attainders on Convicted Witches - 2
In 1711, Massachusetts reversed the consequences of convictions for individuals who had been convicted in the 1692 Salem witch trials. These images and transcriptions document those reversals. This is page 2.

Salem Witch Trials Aftermath 1711 - Reversing the Attainders on Convicted Witches
In 1711, Massachusetts reversed the consequences of convictions for individuals who had been convicted in the 1692 Salem witch trials. These images and transcriptions document those reversals.

Freedmen's School for Women - Reconstruction - 1866
A Reconstruction-era vocational Freedmen's School for women to learn sewing.

African American History and Women Timeline 1910-1919
A chronology of events and birthdates for African American women and other women involved in African American history. This section of the timeline covers the years 1910-1919.

Maria Goeppert-Mayer
Biography of Maria Goeppert-Mayer, including her education and discoveries. She was the second woman to win a Nobel Prize for Physics.

Teresa of Avila
Teresa of Avila biography - profile of the Spanish saint who was part of the Counter-Reformation, helped reform monasteries in Spain to more strictly adhere to their rule.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries December 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in December 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Royal Women in Pictures
Images of royal women -- queens, pharaohs, more -- in photographs, art, sculpture, more.

Medieval Women's History in Pictures
Pictures of women in the medieval era: paintings and other depictions of medieval women.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries March 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in March 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries June 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in June 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries August 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in August 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries September 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in September 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries October 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in October 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries February 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in February 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries April 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in April 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Notable Women Who Died in 2005 - Obituaries January 2005
Here's a list of some of the notable women whose lives ended in January 2005 -- famous and not so famous, with links to biographies and obituaries.

Woodrow Wilson and Edith Wilson Photo - Inauguration Day 1917
Woodrow Wilson and his second wife and second First Lady Edith Wilson at the presidential inauguration, 1917. Page 3.

Edith Wilson Photo Gallery
Photographs of Edith Wilson, controversial second wife of President Woodrow Wilson.

Women in History Pictures - African Delegates
African Delegates to historic health summit, from a collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 37.

Amelia Earhart with Bi-Plane Friendship - 1928
Amelia Earhart with her bi-plane Friendship on June 14, 1928. Page 34.

National Poetry Month 2009 - Edna St. Vincent Millay
Photo of the poet Edna St. Vincent Millay at Mitchell Kennerley's home, Mamaroneck, New York. Page 39.

Scene from Pride and Prejudice - Jane Austen Novel - Famous Women Writers of England
Mr Darcy and Sir William Lucas in a graceful social scene from Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen. From a set of pictures illustrating Famous Women Writers of England. Page 36.

Judith Leyster Self Portrait - Picture
Judith Leyster Self Portrait, part of a collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 31.

Lynette Woodard - 1990
A shot of Lynette Woodard, legendary women's basketball pioneer. Page 13.

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert - Picture of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert
A picture of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Page 33.

Sappho Statue - Head of a Woman, Copy of a Statue by Silanion - Glyptothek, Munich - Ancient Greece - Fourth Century BCE
Head of a woman, probably a copy of a statue of Sappho by Sinanion, fourth century BCE, now in the Glyptotech, Munich. Page 38.

Sojourner Truth Memorial Bust Unveiled - Michelle Obama and Nancy Pelosi Look On
Michelle Obama and Nancy Pelosi look on as a memorial bust of Sojourner Truth is unveiled. Page 35.

Sonia Sotomayor Picture - Supreme Court Nominee - Mother and Daughter
Sonia Sotomayor picture, part of a collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 32.

Virgin Mary Picture - Book of Hours
Image of Virgin Mary from a Book of Hours, 1524. Page 30.

Woman's Building - World's Columbian Exposition - Chicago - 1893
A picture of the west entrance to the Woman's Building, part of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago. Page 29.

Women's Sports Pictures - NCAA Women's Frozen Four: Wisconsin Badgers v Mercyhurst Lakers
Meghan Duggan and the rest of the Wisconsin Badgers women's ice hockey team after beating the Mercyhurst Lakers in March, 2009 - part of the NCAA Women's Frozen Four Championship game. Page 40.

1917 White House Protest - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 78.

Alicia Keys and Gen. Ann Dunwoody Celebrate Women's History Month 2009
Alicia Keys And Gen. Ann Dunwoody Visit Dunbar High School to celebrate Women's History Month on March 19, 2009 in Washington, DC. Page 41.

Another Rosie the Riveter - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 86.

Best Female Athlete? - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 77.

Pioneer Life - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 85.

Michelle Wei Disappointed - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 75.

Kristi Yamaguchi on Ice - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 84.

Lady Liberty - Women in History Pictures
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 72.

Marriage Equality - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 80.

Olympics 1984 Highlight - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 79.

Powerful Ruler Catherine the Great - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 69.

Suffragettes - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 87.

Republican Women - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 70.

Vaulting - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 76.

World War I Poster - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 73.

Women at Manzanar - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 82.

World War II Nurses - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 83.

Florence Nightingale - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 74.

Joan of Arc - Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 81.

Jane Addams Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 64.

Black History Month Picture Highlight
Photograph of an African American woman from about 1900, in celebration of Women's History Month. Page 48.

California Voter
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 62.

Hillary Clinton Campaigns
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 68.

Caroline Kennedy and Daughters
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 55.

Choice on Choice
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 63.

Election Night 2008 - Two Women Also Move Into History
Michelle Obama and Jill Biden with their newly-elected husbands on Election Night, 2008. Page 61.

Elizabeth I of England by Hilliard
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 49.

Female Moses
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 46.

Future First Lady on the Ice
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 57.

Hillary 2008 - Hillary Clinton
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 60.

Human Rights Day, December 10
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 56.

Hurdles for Women
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 71.

Inauguration 2009
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 50.

Iranian Opposition Leader Visits Holocaust Memorial
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 58.

Maria Mitchell's Telescope
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 52.

Mary Queen of Scots Picture
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 43.

Laura Bush Portrait Unveiled
The portrait of Laura Bush is by the artist Aleksander Titovets. Her portrait and that of her husband were privately funded. Page 53.

Lucy Parsons, Radical Woman
Photograph of Lucy Parsons, radical activist, from about 1915. Page 45.

Stonehenge
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 54.

Change in 96 Years - Women in History Pictures
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 51.

The Great Depression
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 59.

Laundry Day - The Washwomen - Women in History Pictures
Depiction of a woman's task in the 19th century: laundry day. Page 42.

Three Women Saints - Women in History Pictures
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint Catherine of Alexandria and Saint Rosalie depicted in a medieval image. Page 67.

Woman Vice President Candidate - Geraldine Ferraro 2008
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 65.

Woman on Bicycle, 1922
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 66.

Women's Soccer - Women in History Pictures - Picture Gallery
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 47.

Women's Work - Women in History Pictures
Traditional craft in the modern world. Page 44.

Opposition to Women's Suffrage - Photo of Anti-Suffrage Headquarters
A photo of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage. Page 9.

Woman - Civil War - Mathew Brady Studio Photographer
Picture of an unidentified woman in the period of the Civil War, from the Mathew Brady Studio. Page 10.

Women Workers 1934 - Kellogg Company Cereal Inspectors
Women inspectors at the Kellogg Company, 1934. Page 11.

Mystery Woman - Grand Duchess Catherine Alexeevna - Portrait
Image of the future Catherine the Great, from a collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 8.

Woman Sewing Parachute Harnesses - Women Working During World War II - Women in Factories and Production Work - Picture Gallery
Woman sewing parachute harnesses, part of a collection of pictures of women working in production work in factories during World War II, part of the homefront war effort. Page 7.

Sarah Josepha Hale Letter about Thanksgiving - Weekly Women's History Image
Images of a letter from editor Sarah Josepha Hale to Abraham Lincoln urging him to proclaim a national Day of Thanksgiving. Page 6.

Women in History Pictures - Picture Gallery
A collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 12.

Calamity Jane Photograph
Picture of Calamity Jane, 1895. Women's History. Page 16.

S. Emma Edmonds Image - Civil War Nurse and Spy
Image of S. Emma Edmonds, American Civil War nurse, spy, and soldier.Civil. Page 4.

Clara Barton at International Red Cross Conference 1902
A photograph of Clara Barton, taken about 1902, while she was attending an International Red Cross Conference. Page 17.

Hampton Institute Science Classroom - Women's History Images
An image of a co-ed science classroom at Hampton Institute, 1899. Page 5.

National Woman's Party Suffrage Pins - Jailed for Freedom
National Woman's Party 1917 pin commemorating suffragists who were

Julia Child's Kitchen - Photo of Julia Child's Kitchen at Smithsonian National Museum of American History
A photograph of Julia Child's kitchen at the Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Page 20.

Marie Antoinette Image - Picture
Marie Antoinette portrait, part of a collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 15.

Mother Jones Picture - Labor History
A photograph of Mother Jones, May 1, 1929. Page 14.

Medieval Book Image of a Woman Teaching Geometry
A woman teaching geometry, holding a compass and square, from a 14th century illustration from a copy of Euclid's Elements. Page 18.

Aimee Semple McPherson Photo
A photograph of Aimee Semple McPherson, evangelist and center of a famous sex scandal. Page 3.

Caryatids - Supportive Women
Caryatids, depicting classic image of women. Page 26.

Christine de Pizan Portrait
Christine de Pizan, author of The Book of the City of Ladies, was a medieval writer whose work sheds light on the lives of medieval women.

First American Women Astronauts - Pictures of Women Astronauts - Women in Space - NASA photographs
Photographs of the first six American women astronauts, 1980. Page 24.

Women and World War II - Women at Work on the Home Front - Woman with Hand Drill Assembling a Plane Section - Image Gallery
A woman at North American Aviation, Inc., in 1942, operates a hand drill while working on a plane. Page 27.

Harriet Beecher Stowe - Picture
Bust of Harriet Beecher Stowe, part of a collection of images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. Page 23.

Kennedy Family Portrait - August 11, 2009
A docent points out Eunice Kennedy Shriver, third from left, in a family photograph at the John F. Kennedy Museum, August 11, 2009. Page 21.

Madame de Stael as Corinne - Portrait of Madame de Stael by Louise Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrun
A portrait of Germaine Necker, Madame de Stael, by artist Louise Elizabeth Vigee-Lebrun. Page 28.

Portrait of Thora Maria Borch - 19th Century Images of Women - Portrait by Wilhelm Marstrand
A portrait of a 19th century woman, by Wilhelm Marstrand (1810 - 1873). Page 25.

Christina of Sweden Portrait - Weekly Women's History Image
A portrait of Queen Christina of Sweden by Sébastien Bourdon. Page 2.

Victorian Woman - Picture of 19th Century Woman
Photo of 19th century woman, showing fashion and hair style of the day. Page 22.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Women in History Pictures - Weekly Picture Gallery - 2008-2009
A collection of weekly images depicting women in history, from the About.com Women's History Guidesite. From 2008-2009.

Colonial Woman at Work - Spinning and Reading
A woman in the American colonial era spins wool while reading a book.

Colonial Woman at Work - Weaving
A recreation, about 1950, of a colonial era weaving loom.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century
In the 18th century, it was still true that most royal succession and most power was in the hands of men. But a number of women ruled, directly or through influencing their husbands and sons. Here are some of the most powerful women of the 18th century (some born earlier than 1700, but important after), listed chronologically.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Elisabeth of Russia
Elisabeth of Russia was the daughter of Peter the Great,and came to power by organizing a military coup. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa, reigning Habsburg empress, was a reformer who centralized government. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Empress Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II was known for her tight hand as a ruler, but also for promoting the Enlightenment. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette is one of the best-known names of women rulers, because of the violent end of her reign. Her French subjects mistrusted her foreign allegiances. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

More Women Rulers
Find more powerful women in history.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Sophia von Hanover
Electress of Hanover and at one time Heir Presumptive of the British throne. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Mary of Modena
Second wife of James II of Great Britain; her Roman Catholicism was unacceptable to the Whig party. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Anne Stuart
When Anne Stuart died without surviving offspring (she had been pregnant 18 times), the crown passed to the son of her cousin. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Maria Elisabeth of Austria
Maria Elisabeth of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, was herself the governor of the Netherlands. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Maria Anna of Austria
Maria Anna, a Hapsburg duchess who married the king of Portugal, ruled as his regent after he had a stroke. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century:Catherine I of Russia
Consort of Peter the Great, Catherine I of Russia ruled with her husband and then, mostly as a figurehead, on her own. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, Queen of Sweden
Queen Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden reigned as queen between the time she succeeded her brother and her husband became king. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Women Rulers of the Eighteenth Century: Elisabeth Farnese
Queen consort of Philip V of Spain, she was the de facto ruler until his death. One of the powerful women of the 18th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Henrietta Maria of France
Henrietta Maria of France, she was queen consort to Charles I of England and Scotland until his execution in the first English Civil War. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Christina of Sweden
Christina ruled as queen of Sweden for 22 years before abdicating and moving to Rome after her conversion to Roman Catholicism. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Turhan Hatice Sultan
Turhan Hatice Sultan was a concubine of Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim I and mother of his son Mehmed IV. She was regent for their son. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Maria Francisca of Savoy
Maria Francisca of Savoy married twice, both kings of Portugal. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Mary of Modena
Mary of Modena, an Italian Roman Catholic, married James II of England, possibly contributing to the reasons for deposing him in favor of his daughter by his first wife. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Mary II Stuart
Mary II replaced her father in the Glorious Revolution, and ruled together with her husband, William of Orange, until her death. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Sophia von Hanover
Granddaughter of James VI and I of Scotland and England, she became the heir presumptive of the British crown. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Ulrika Eleonora the Older
Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark married the king of Sweden. She was to be regent upon his death. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

More Powerful Women Rulers
More women rulers, to continue your search.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Anna Nzinga
Queen Nzinga helped her people resist the Portuguese and served as regent for her brother's son. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria was queen consort of Louis XIII and regent for Louis XIV. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Marie de Medici
Maria Medici is known for her political involvement, including during her regency for her son, Louis XIII of France. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Maria Anna
Maria Anna, Infanta of Spain, married her first cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, and took an active role in his reign. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Elizabeth Bathory
Elizabeth Bathory, Countess of Hungary, was convicted of one of the bloodiest serial murder sprees in history. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Nur Jahan of India
Nur Jahan of India was de facto ruler of the Mughal empire in India. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Woman Ruler of the 17th Century: Kösem Sultan
Kösem was consort to a sultan, mother to two sultans and grandmother to another. She ruled as regent twice, one of only two women to do so in the history of the Ottoman empire. One of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Women Rulers of the 17th Century: Four Queens of Patani
Four Malay ruling queens of Patani, southern Thailand, held power as Europeans began to be seen in the area. Some of the powerful women of the 17th century.

Women Rulers 1601 - 1700
Women rulers of the 17th century: a bit more common than earlier, but still a rarity.

Queen Victoria: Woman Ruler of the 19th Century
Queen Victoria's reign was a key event spanning more than 62 years of the 19th century (and a little over a year into the 20th). She was monarch during a time of both democratization and empire.

Afua Koba (Afua Kobi): Woman Ruler of the 19th Century
Afua Koba (or Kobi) was Queen Mother of the Ashanti Empire when the British were trying to take over their land in West Africa. She was deposed for trying to make peace with the British.

Empress Dowager Cixi: Woman Ruler of the 19th Century
The Chinese Empress Dowager Cixi wielded enormous power, though not explicitly the empress but technically ruling for her son then her nephew.